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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
It is hypothesized that schizophrenia may be related to an excess of which neurotransmitter:

a) serotonin
b) GABA
c) dopamine
d) glutamate
c) dopamine
Structural abnormalities in the brains of patients with OCD have been identified in several areas. Which of the following areas have NOT been found to be affected?

a) cingulate gyrus
b) orbital frontal cortex
c) substantia nigra
d) caudate nucleus
c) substantia nigra
A patient presents with quite limited spontaneous speech, an inability to repeat statements made by the examiner, yet an ability to follow instructions provided by the examiner. This patient may be suffering from:

a) Wernicke's aphasia
b) Conduction aphasia
c) Broca's aphasia
d) Global aphasia
c) Broca's aphasia
Another patient presents with quite fluent, spontaneous speech, yet an inability to repeat statements made by the examiner, and an ability to follow instructions provided by the examiner. This patient may be suffering from:

a) Wernicke's aphasia
b) Conduction aphasia
c) Broca's aphasia
d) Global aphasia
b) Conduction aphasia
A 76 year old woman presents with marked confusion, disorientation, and impaired memory that reportedly became noticeable within the past week. Among the following choices, which is the MOST LIKELY diagnosis?

a) depression
b) dementia
c) delirium
d) dystonia
c) delirium

(Dementia requires impairment in 2 or more cognitive areas that interfere with social/occupational functioning and there must not be a clouding of consciousness)
Which of the following measures would likely be the LEAST sensitive to the effects of a brain injury?

a) Achievement test
b) IQ test
c) Memory test
d) Continuous performance test (CPT)
a) Achievement test
What is the classic triad of symptoms of acute Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome?

a) ataxia, vertigo, and vomiting
b)ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, and confusional state
c) extrapyramidal movement disorder, hallucinations, and personality changes
d) gradually-developing anterograde amnesia, constructional deficits, and anosmia
b)ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, and confusional state

(ACE)
Heschel's gyrus is associated with which of the following?

a) primary visual cortex
b) primary auditory cortex
c) secondary auditory cortex
d) somatosensory cortex
b) primary auditory cortex
A right-handed patient sustains a PCA infarct that results in damage to the left posterior white matter and the splenium of the corpus callosum, with relative gray matter sparing. Which of the following symptom clusters is most likely to occur?

a) alexia without agraphia (a.k.a., posterior alexia or associative alexia)
b) alexia with agraphia
c) frontal or anterior alexia (a.k.a., literal alexia)
d) Wernecke's aphasia and agraphia
e) A conduction aphasia and agraphia
a) alexia without agraphia
Which of the following is most likely to result in dementia?

a) Parkinson's disease
b) Huntington's disease
c) Sydenham's Chorea
d) Primary dystonia
e) Essential tremor
b) Huntington's disease
Evidence of which form of validity is MOST needed for a job screening test?

a) concurrent validity
b) content validity
c) predictive validity
d) face validity
c) predictive validity
Which is MOST TRUE of a person with Transient Global Amnesia?

a) oriented and able to correctly provide personal information
b) confabulates
c) shows anterograde amnesia but not retrograde amnesia
d)shows retrograde amnesia but anterograde not amnesia
e) shows decreased level of consciousness
a) oriented and able to correctly provide personal information
Seizures originating in what area are associated with fear and panic?

a) dorsolateral frontal convexity
b) supplementary motor area
c) caudate
d) amygdala
d) amygdala
Which of the following is a differentiating factor in comparing "familial" Alzheimer's (in which a genetic link has been established) from the more common "nonfamilial" Alzheimer's?

a) age of onset
b) core clinical/behavioral features
c) post-mortem neuropathological changes
d) none of the above (e.g., aside from genetics the two syndromes are identical)
a) age of onset
If brain damage involves structures surrounding the cribiform plate, it is likely that which cranial nerve would be involved?

a) olfactory
b) optic
c) facial
d) hypoglossal
a) olfactory
A patient who is unable to recognize his family members, or his doctor of many years, is likley suffereing from __________. If this problem is the result of a unilateral disorder, it is likely that the lesion is in the __________ hemisphere.

a) Simultanagnosia, Left
b) Simultanagnosia, Right
c) Prosopagnosia, Left
d) Prosopagnosia, Right
d) Prosopagnosia, Right
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of multiple sclerosis?

a) Dysarthria
b) Aphasia
c) Nystagmus
d) Tremor
b) Aphasia

Since the cerebral cortical "gray matter," which has no myelin is relatively spared, MS patients rarely devlop signs of cerebral cortical dysfunction, such as seizures or aphasia (Kaufmann, pg. 354)
Anomic aphasia is typically caused by damage to the following area of the left hemisphere:

a) thalamus
b) angular gyrus
c) Wernicke's and Broca's Areas
d) arcuate fasciculus
b) angular gyrus
Which one of the following statements is TRUE:

a) Approximately 5% of all causes of dementia are reversible
b) Approximately 25% of all causes of dementia are reversible
c) Approximately 45% of all causes of dementia are reversible
d) Approximately 65% of all causes of dementia are reversible
a) Approximately 5% of all causes of dementia are reversible

More than 50 different illnesses produce symptoms of dementia. 5% of causes of dementia are reversible, while 11% have some specific treatment available.
An examiner gives a patient the WASI while he is on an inpatient rehabilitation unit. The patient is then seen as an outpatient to track his recovery, where he is administered the WAIS-III. What sources of varioability or error variance might affect his scores and obscure real changes in his functioning?

a) differences in items/content (i.e., item heterogeneity)
b) time differences
c) scorer differences
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Which one of the following is TRUE about malingering?

a) any patient who is involved in a personal injury case or has a lawyer must be malingering
b) patients with genuine organic illnesses will not exaggerate their symptoms
c) malingering patients typically demonstrate more difficulties with memory than they do with attention
d) malingering is detectable through face-to-face clinical interviews alone
c) malingering patients typically demonstrate more difficulties with memory than they do with attention
PTA, or Post Traumatic Amnesia, refers to:

a) the fact that most children cannot remember traumatic events that happened to them
b) a period of time following a TBI in which the patient cannot remember what had happened to cause the injury
c) a period of time following a TBI in which new memories cannot be consistently formed
d) the memory difficulties typically associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
c) a period of time following a TBI in which new memories cannot be consistently formed
An individual with which type of dementia is most likely to show retrieval rather than retention deficits:

a) Alzheimer's Dementia
b) Parkinson's Disease
c) Diffuse Lewy Body Dementia
d) Pick's Disease
b) Parkinson's Disease
Leukoaraiosis refers to:

a) diffuse white matter changes seen in older patients
b) watershed white matter damage associated with anoxia
c) destruction of white matter in the peripheral nervous system
d) an attack on the cerebral and spinal cord myelin following an infectino or immunization
a) diffuse white matter changes seen in older patients
The primary visual area lies along the _________.

a) calcarine fissure
b) central sulcus
c) Sylvian fissure
d) lateral fissure
a) calcarine fissure
The criterion validity of a test is limited by which of the following:

a) The test's standard deviation
b)The test's reliability
c) Validity shrinkage
d) The standard deviation of the criterion variable
a) The test's standard deviation
Functional neuroimaging (PET, fMRI) in patients with schizophrenia has shown:

a) enlarged ventricles
b) no difference relative to normal controls
c) hypofrontality
d) hyperfrontality
c) hypofrontality
When trying to teach somthing to a patient with severe memory impairment, you prevent the patient from guessing or making mistakes during teh learning phase. this is an example of:

a) Prospective Memory Training
b) Graduated Exposure
c) Priming
d) Errorless Learning
d) Errorless Learning
Double simultaneous stimulation is used to screen for __________:

a) agnosia
b) hyperarousal
c) neglect
d) occular apraxia
c) neglect
Which is not a neuropathological feature associated with Alzheimer's Dementia:

a) neuritic plaques
b) neurofibrillary tangles
c) granulovacular bodies
d) Lewy bodies
d) Lewy bodies
Frontal memory disorders are characterized by all but:

a) attentional deficits interfere with encoding
b) loss of autobiographical knowledge
c) confabulation
d) limited memory for temporal order of events
b) loss of autobiographical knowledge
Few studies have been conducted on pesticide exposures; however, the deficits associated with them appear to be similar to the core pattern in solvent toxicity, including:

a) mental slowing and anxiety/depression
b) visual spatial deficits
c) agraphia and alexia
d) peripheral neuropathy and optic ataxia
a) mental slowing and anxiety/depression
In pediatric patients, about ____% of brain tumors are in the posterior fossa and ____% are supratentorial.

a) 50, 50
b) 10, 90
c) 70, 30
d) 30, 70
c) 70, 30
Which of the following is NOT a feature of Gerstmann's Syndrome:

a) acalculia
b) ideational apraxia
c) left/right confusion
d) finger agnosia
b) ideational apraxia
Broca's aphasia is commonly accompanied by which of the following:

a) right hemiplegia
b) contralateral superior quadrantanopsia
c) Gerstmann's syndrome
d) right visual neglect
a) right hemiplegia
Which region of the brain seems to be involved both in habit learning and in OCD?

a) amygdala
b) caudate
c) hippocampus
d) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
b) caudate
Which of the following is NOT one of teh more common symptoms or signs of elevated intracranial pressure?

a) headache
b) generally altered mental status, especially irritability and depressed level of alertness and attention
c) focal cortical symptoms, such as aphasia
d) nausea and vomiting
c) focal cortical symptoms, such as aphasia
Which of the following is a potentially reversible cause of dementia?

a) vascular dementia
b) traumatic brain injury
c) subdural hematoma
d) dementia with Lewy Bodies
c) subdural hematoma
Alexia refers to:

a) The lack of development of normal reading skills
b) Impaired auditory processing of language
c) an acquired deficit in the interpretation of written language
d) an inability to understand spoken language
c) an acquired deficit in the interpretation of written language
Dysarthria, dysphagia, and hypoactive jaw and gag reflexes without associated cognitive or emotional changes is known as:

a) pseudobulbar palsy
b) bulbar palsy
c) suprabulbar palsy
d) Meniere's Disease
b) bulbar palsy
Use of a high specific sign of symptoms (e.g., contralateral neglect) in identifying brain damage will result in a high rate of:

a) false negative errors
b) false positive errors
c) true positive errors
d) true negative errors
a) false negative errors
Which of the following Wechsler scale subtests is the best indicator of premorbid intelligence?

a) Vocabulary
b) Digit Span
c) Block Design
d) Similarities
a) Vocabulary
Practice effects are most likely to be seen on which Wechsler scale subtest?

a) Vocabulary
b) Similarities
c) Picture Completion
d) Digit Span
c) Picture Completion
Which statement is correct?

a) In Multiple Sclerosis intellectual changes typically develop later than physical deteriorations
b) In Alzheimer's Disease intellectual changes typically develop later than physical deteriorations
c) In Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA's) physical deteriorations typically develop later than intellectual deteriorations
d) In Parkinson's Disease, physical changes typically develop later than intellectual changes
a) In Multiple Sclerosis intellectual changes typically develop later than physical deteriorations
Which of the following statements IS TRUE with regard to differentiating depression from dementia (Alzheimer's/AD)?

a) Cognitive deficits in persons with depression are often more severe than in persons with AD.
b) Persons with depression show more memory retention deficits while persons with AD show retrieval deficits.
c) Persons with depression are more likely to show impaired naming ability, verbal fluency, and visuospatial ability.
d) Persons with depression may exert less effot on the performance of neuropsychological tests.
d) Persons with depression may exert less effot on the performance of neuropsychological tests.

Cognitive deficits in depression tend to be less severe and extensive than in AD. AD patients show more consisten impairment on memory tests than depressed patients. Persons with depression are less likely than those with AD to show impaired naming ability, verbal fluency, and visuospatial ability. Depressed patients are more likely to appear to exert less effort, and may complain more about their cognitive difficulties.
Which brain region is most often affected by hydrocephalus?

a. Posterior regions
b. Frontal lobes
c. Temporal lobes
d. All of these are equally affected
a. Posterior regions

According to Fletcher et al., when hydrocephalus occurs, the ventricles expand in a posterior to anterior direction and white matter is damaged. Due to these factors, the posterior regions of the brain may be particularly susceptible. This may partially explain the PIQ<VIQ findings...interestingly, children who show proportionally greater thinning of the posterior brain regions relative to anterior tend to show the PIQ<VIQ pattern. When the thinning is comparable, so too are the IQ socres (Dennis et al, 1981).
The brain's major inhibitory neurotransmitter is ________, which is primarily affected by benzodiazepines and barbituates.

a. Acetylcholine
b. GABA
c. Glutamate
d. Dopamine
b. GABA
A lesion of Brodman's area 44 in the dominant hemisphere is most closely associated with which of the following?

a. Dysfluent aphasia
b. Diminished sensation in the right face and hand
c. Poor speech comprehension and fluent aphasia
d. Right hemispace neglect
a. Dysfluent aphasia
What pattern of IQ performance is typically observed in children with early-onset hydrocephalus?

a. VIQ<PIQ
b. PIQ<VIQ
c. VIQ=PIQ, with both being on average 10 points below age matched norms
d. VIQ=PIQ, with both being on average 10 points above age matched norms
b. PIQ<VIQ

This finding is somewhat controversial. On average, this is true, but there is substantial variability between cases with shunted hydrocephalus.
Lesions of the temporal lobe can cause:

a. Contralateral inferior quadranopia
b. Contralateral superior quadranopia
c. Bitemporal hemianopia
d. Contralateral homonymous hemianopia
b. Contralateral superior quadranopia

Lesions of the temporal lobe can cause contralateral superior quadranopia due to interruption of the lower portions of the optic radiations. This is sometimes referred to as the "pie in the sky" phenomenon.
Gait difficulties, urinary incontinence, and cognitive decline are highly indicative of which condition:

a. pseudotumor cerebri
b. subdural hematoma
c. tonsillar herniation
d. normal pressure hydrocephalus
d. normal pressure hydrocephalus
Following a stroke, a 75 year-old woman is left with imparied language comprehension, but normal fluency and repetition. Her symptoms are most consistent with:

a. Mixed transcortical aphasia
b. Transcortical sensory aphasia
c. Transcortical motor aphasia
d. Wernicke's aphasia
b. Transcortical sensory aphasia
Which statement is false regarding cerebral palsy (CP)?

a. Injuries causing CP can occur pre-natally, post-natally, during infancy or early childhood.
b. When the cause of CP can be established, prematurity and low birthweight are usually implicated.
c. Epilepsy and mental retardation frequently co-occur with CP.
d. Less that 5% of persons iwth CP have normal intelligence.
d. Less that 5% of persons iwth CP have normal intelligence.
Which of the following disorders has been most closely linked to degeneration of acetylcholine-synthesizing neurons in the basal forebrain?

a. Huntington's disease
b. Alzheimer's disease
c. Parkinson's disease
d. Normal pressure hydrocephalus
e. Multiple sclerosis
b. Alzheimer's disease

Although Alzheimer's is more than a simple degeneration of the nucleus basalis of Meynert, this is a key site of degeneration and likely accounts for the prominent early memory decline. The other disorders may also involve the nucleus basalis of Meynert and/or cholinergic systems at one point or another, but less directly or centrally.
A lesion of the acuate fasciculus would most likley casue the following subtype of aphasia:

a. Wernicke's aphasia
b. Conduction aphasia
c. Broca's aphasia
d. Global aphasia
b. Conduction aphasia
Which treatments of tumors are generally NOT associated with mental status change?

a. All chemotherapies except methotrexate
b. Methotrexate, but generally not other chemotherapies
c. Cranial (whole brain) radiotherapy
d. Medications such as opiates used for pain
a. All chemotherapies except methotrexate

Most chemotherapies do not cause mental status changes because they cannot cross the blood brain barrier. The exception is methotrexate, which is administered intrathecally (into the subarachnoid space usually by spinal tap). The benefit of this med is that it often protects from leukemic cells entering the CNS...but it has a cost. It often induces confusional states, LD's, and "permanent intellectual impairment."
Cerebellar pathways affect all but one of the following:

a. Motor learning
b. Balanace
c. Higher-order cognitive processes
d. Anosmia
e. Respiratory movements
d. Anosmia

The cerebellum is involved in both a variety of motor and cognitive processes. Anosmia is a deficit of olfaction, where the sense of smell is diminished or lost. It is also known as olfactory loss and can occur to single or to both nostrils.
Lateral cerebellar lesions primarily affect:

a. Trunk control
b. Posture and balance
c. Motor planning
d. Gait
c. Motor planning

The lateral cerebellar hemisphere affects distal limb coordination and motor planning. Trunk control, posture and balance, and gait deficits result from medial cerebellar lesions.
Which of the following statements is true:

a. The left hemisphere has more association cortex than the right hemisphere.
b. The left hemisphere has more gray matter/less white matter relative to the right.
c. The two hemispheres have equal amounts of gray and white matter.
d. The right hemisphere has fewer interconnections than the left hemisphere.
b. The left hemisphere has more gray matter/less white matter relative to the right.

The right hemisphere has more white matter, less gray matter, more association cortex, and more interconnections.
A person who can not identify an object by touch may have:

a. Anomia
b. Associative agnosia
c. Astereognosis
d. Alexia
c. Astereognosis
Autopsy studies of dementia pugilistica typically reveal all of the following except:

a. Neuronal loss
b. Infarcts in the basal ganglia
c. Astrocyte proliferation
d. Prominent neurofibrillary tangles
b. Infarcts in the basal ganglia
Which symptoms below are characteristic of normal aging:

a. Decreased verbal fluency
b. Decreased attention span
c. Decreased working memory skills
d. Decreased "crystallized" knowledge
e. Difficulties with language comprehension
f. A & C
g. B & C
f. A & C
Neglect can occur with lesions in all of the follwing areas except:

a. Right internal capsule
b. Right frontal lobe
c. Right thalamus or basal ganglia
d. Right midbrain
a. Right internal capsule
The structure involved in the "master clock" for circadian rhythms is the:

a. Arcuate nucleus
b. Median eminance
c. Suprachiasmatic nucleus
d. Dentate gyrus
c. Suprachiasmatic nucleus
A test designed as a general screening for brain impairment should have:

a. High specificity
b. High sensitivity
c. Face validity
d. Low sensitivity but high specificity
b. High sensitivity
Infarction of the inferior portion of the pons or medulla can cause:

a. Pseudobulbar palsy
b. "Man in barrel" syndrome
c. Locked in syndrome
d. Alien hand syndrome
e. "Pie in sky" visual defect
c. Locked in syndrome
_____ is the neurotransmitter primarily found in neurons of the raphe nuclei.

a. Dopamine
b. Acetylcholine
c. Histamine
d. Serotonin
d. Serotonin
A person with phonological alexia is most likely to make the following error:

a. Reads "ought" for "thought"
b. Reads "think" for "thought"
c. Reads "hot" for "thought"
d. Reads "though" for "thought"
d. Reads "though" for "thought"
Which statement is true regarding the relationship between depression and dementia:

a. Depression decreases as the severity of dementia increases
b. CT and MRI reliably differentiate between depression and dementia
c. Cognitive symptoms associated with depression develop insidiously while cognitive symptoms associated with dementia develop rapidly
d. Both depression and dementia result in similar deficits in immediate recall and recognition on memory tests
a. Depression decreases as the severity of dementia increases
Which disorder is characterized by cafe' au lait spots and Lisch nodules?

a. Tuberous sclerosis
b. Neurofibromatosis Type 1
c. Sturge-Weber syndrome
d. Angelman's syndrome
b. Neurofibromatosis Type 1