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43 Cards in this Set

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During the first 2 weeks - 6 months, neurons divide and multiply; this is referred to as _______ and _______. Problems during this stage may result in _____ overall neurons at the beginning of life, resulting in ____, or m__________y (e.g.).
mitosis and proliferation; fewer; MR, microencephaly (and microcephaly)
In the process known as neural _________, neurons move from inner to outer layers of the brain (6 wks-6 mos.), and layer upon one another in a process known as __________.
Development from inside to outer regions follows radially oriented glial cells
Undisrupted process leads to brain with appropriate “folding” (i.e. normal ____ and _____ develop.)
Disruption can lead to , ________ ("small brain"), ______ ("smooth brain"), or mental retardation.
migration; lamination; sulci and gyri; microencephaly; lissencephaly
Neuronal systems develop
6 wks – 6 mos. during the process known as ___________,
Cell bodies, axons, dendrites develop. Selective cell ______ occurs.
cytodifferentiation; death
In the process known as _______, synaptic connections develop. This largely occurs 7 wks into gestation through 1-2 years postnatally. Postnatal
genetics account for part of “wiring”, but early neonatal / postnatal experience is also important.
synpatogenesis
Lissencephaly often results in _____ ______ and/or ________ disorders.
mental retardation; seizure disorders
Agenesis of Corpus Callosum: findings may include: high riding _________ventricle(s); cyst; widely spaced, parallel, crescent-shaped ______ ventricle(s)
third; lateral; hippocampal
Agenesis of Corpus Callosum may be an isolated syndrome, or associated with other conditions, e.g. ________ ________, _______ ________ syndrome.
Spina Bifida, Dandy Walker Syndrome
In the 3rd-4th week of gestation, the dorsal ______ invaginates to form a closed midline _______ __________ that eventually gives rise to the _______ (3 words). Defects in closure are magnified throughout gestation.
ectoderm; neural tube; central nervous system
The _____derm forms the CNS and ______, while the ______derm forms the structures that cover the CNS (ie meninges, vertebrae and skull)
ectoderm, mesoderm
The timing of gestational disruption occurs leads to different outcomes (Hoon & Melham, 2000). Disruptions in the late 2nd/ early 3rd trimester, or peri-/postnatal period may lead to ____ ______and _____ _____ damage. This may result in a ______ disorder with varied sxs.
gray matter; white matter; neurodevelopmental
The sequential stages of gestational neural development include:
Proliferation, migration, differentiation, myelination, cell death. Mnemonic: Pals May Drink More Cherry Daquiries
At birth the brain is ca _____% of adult weight; by 2 years it is about _________% of adult weight.
25% at birth; 80% at 2 y.o.
Brain development occurs from the "neck up" and the spinal cord develops from the "neck down". The crude order in the brain goes as follows:
1. brainstem (medulla, pons, midbrain, cranial nerves)
2. cerebellum, basal ganglia
3. limbic system (thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, etc)
4.primary sensory input areas of the cortex
5. motor output aresa of the cortex
6. association, integration, memory and planning areas.
Name some problems that may occur if development in the following regions goes astray:
1. brainstem (medulla, pons, midbrain, cranial nerves)
2. cerebellum, basal ganglia
3. limbic system (thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, etc)
4.primary sensory input areas of the cortex
5. motor output aresa of the cortex
6. association, integration, memory and planning areas.
1. brainstem--crossed/lazy eyes, deafness, sleep d/o's hallucinations.
2. cereb./basal gang.: ataxia, invol. movements, "floppiness"
3. limbic syst: ADD, emotional d/o's, obesisty, precocious puberty
4. 1ary sens.input areas (cortex): central auditory d/o's
5. motor output areas (cortex): incoordination, spasticity
6. ADD, LD
Another schematic for development includes breaking it into ______, ______, and ______ zones (details to follow).
primary, secondary, tertiary
The primary zones in brain development are _________ specific. They are fully functional by the end of the _______ year.
modality; first
Secondary zones in brain development are fully functional within the 1st _____ years. They integrate ________-specific info. into _______ info.
5; modality; perceptive
Tertiary zones are fully functional by ages ___ to ____ [except for the (name region) aspects, which are later--perhaps age 12.] These are _____modal areas encompassing borders of the P,T,&O lobes and the prefrontal region with its ______ and _____ connections. Information is integrated across modalities; control is exerted upon _______ , purposive and conative aspects of functioning.
5 to 8; prefrontal; supramodal; cortical & subcortical; executive
Environmental __________ may increase neuronal complexity and improve brain function. In contrast, environmental ________ may impair normal development--f/x may be transient or long-term.
enrichment, deprivation
Studies on environment & brain integrity: name the researchers associated with--
cortisol reactivity to stress; hippocampal and immune changes
McEwen, Gunnar
Studies on environment & brain integrity: name the researchers associated with--
PET scan and bx changes in Romanian orphans
Carlson & Earls
Studies on environment & brain integrity: name the researchers associated with--EEG differences related to cog. development
Nelson, Thatcher, Fischer
Studies on environment & brain integrity: name the researchers associated with--
EEG differences related to emotional traits and caregiver responsivity
Dawson, Davidson, Fox
Studies on environment & brain integrity: name the researchers associated with--
EEG differences related to medical status and caregiver responsivity
Als, Gilkerson
Studies on environment & brain integrity: name the researcher associated with--
Medical and behavioral development of premature babies related to touch/massage
Field
Studies on environment & brain integrity: name the researchers associated with--
dendritic complexity of rats in enriched environment
Diamond, Greenough
Studies on environment & brain integrity: name the researchers associated with--
social behavior and brain changes in socially isolated monkeys
Harlow, Suomi
Studies on environment & brain integrity: name the researchers associated with--
speculation on effects of child abbuse and neglect
Perry, Teicher, Schore
environmental impact on specific abilities more pronounced in sensitive periods: name the researcher(s) assoc. w/--
kittens exposed to visual stimuli show axonal growth and synapse formation in visual processing areas
Hubel & Wiesel
environmental impact on specific abilities more pronounced in sensitive periods: name the researcher(s) assoc. w/--
brain growth and behavior of deafened songbirds
Marler
environmental impact on specific abilities more pronounced in sensitive periods: name the researcher(s) assoc. w/--
EEG changes in pre- and postlingually deafened adults, in brain areas that react to visual vs. auditory inputs, and response to grammatical vs. content words
Neville
environmental impact on specific abilities more pronounced in sensitive periods: name the researcher(s) assoc. w/-- age differences in phoneme detection and language-learning
Kuhl, Stromswold
environmental impact on specific abilities more pronounced in sensitive periods: name the researcher(s) assoc. w/--age differences in recovery from brain damage involve the age at injury & and testing, type of test administered
Kolb
CHILDREN with particular brain d/o's rarely show specific bx pattern meshing uniquely with the particular d/o. F/x of brain d/o's vary according to the ____ of brain insult; environmental _____; environmental _______; ____ at the time of injury; _____ at the time of assessment; nature of outcome measures; as well as sex and handedness.
CHILDREN with particular brain d/o's rarely show specific bx pattern meshing uniquely with the particular d/o. F/x of brain d/o's vary according to the NATURE/TYPE of brain insult; environmental STRESS; environmental SUPPORT; AGE at the time of injury; AGE at the time of assessment; nature of outcome measures; as well as sex and handedness.
Some individuals associated with effects of brain insult on brain development in childhood include:
Fletcher, Yeates, Taylor, Dennis, Shapiro, Satz, Baron, etc. etc.
Deprivation may be particularly deleterious during _______ development of key abilities.
initial/early
For normal brain development to occur, infants MUST have _____, _____, and ____ stimulation, _______ input, and responsive caregivers who buffer ______ .
For normal brain development to occur, infants MUST have VISUAL, AUDITORY and TACTILE stimulation, LANGUATE input, and responsive caregivers who buffer STRESSORS.
Long-term school success is predicted by _______ __________ and ________ in kindergarten.
Phonological awareness, vocabulary
Children may be maximally able to learn speech sounds in their own language from ages ___ to ____.
zero to five
_______ age at acquired injury is generally associated with more severe cognitive and behavioral impairments.
Younger-- note that this is not true in some cases. The young brain is more plastic and resilient, and may recover more efficiently than older brains from some insults. However, early insults may have profound consequences on subequent brain development, whereas ones that occur when the brain is more mature may have more discrete effects.
The best intervention w/r/t pediatric brain injury is _________.
The best intervention w/r/t pediatric brain injury is PREVENTION. The great majority of such injuries is preventable via social/environmental factors. Best prevention is not via safety education programs, but rather through TRAINING IN SUPERVISORY PRACTICES and IMPLEMENTING ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATIONS.
Brain injury effects in children tend to be (more vs. less) specfic in children than adults. This is especially true if damage occurred before ____ to ___ years of age.
Brain injury effects in children tend to be LESS specfic in children than adults. This is especially true if damage occurred before FIVE to SEVEN years of age.
Frontal functions develop in a __________ fashion; some develop by about _____ or _____ years, while others continue to mature in _________.
Frontal functions develop in a STEP-WISE fashion; some develop by about FIVE or SEVEN years, while others continue to mature in ADOLESCENCE.