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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the cerebellum do?
- receives and interprets proprioceptive information
- Coordinates balance and is tightly linked to the vestibular nuclei
- Coordinates fine movement, eye hand coordination
- Predicts the sensory consequences of movement
Describe the anatomy of the cerebellum
- Lies over the 4th ventricle
- can be divided into three lobes (anterior, posterior, flocculonodular)
- Vermis lies centrally, nodule is the most anterior part of the vermis
- Cerebellar tonsils lie superior to foramen magnum on inferior surface of cerebellum
- connected to brainstem via three cerebellar peduncles
What do the cerebellar afferents dealing with vestibular information do?
1. Help orient eye movements during locomotion
2. Provide information of the position of the head and body in space
What do the cerebellar afferents dealing with proprioceptive information do?
Unconscious proprioception
What fibers are involved in proprioceptive cerebellar afferents?
From muscle spindles: Ia, II
From Golgi tendons: Ib
What do the cerebellar afferents dealing with cortical information do?
- Cortex projects to pontine nuclei, which projects to cerebellar hemispheres
- pontocerebellar tract through MCP
- Deals with fine motor control of upper extremity, dexterous hand movement, hand eye coordination
What is the archicerebellum responsible for?
archicerebellum = vestibulocerebellum
responsible for: Trunk control
What is the paleocerebellum responsible for?
paleocerebellum = spinocerebellum
responsible for: Syngeristic movements of extremities
What is the neocerebellum responsible for?
neocerebellum = cerebrocerebellum
responsible for: coordination of intricate and complex movements
(topographical representation of the extremities, areas for eye movement and speech
What do lesions in the FN lobe of the cerebellum result in?
1. trunk ataxia
2. Nystagmus
What do lesions in the anterior lobe of the cerebellum result in?
1. Affects spinocerebellar input (i.e. the synergistic movement of the extremities)
2. Gait ataxia
What do lesions to the neocerebellum do?
1. problems with fine coordination of movement
2. Dysdiadokinesia: An inability to perform rapidly alternating movements
3. Dysmetria: inability to coordinate a movement of the extremities.
what are the main functions of the basal ganglia?
- modulation of voluntary motor activity
- Three parallel circuits
1. Motor circuit controls body and eye movements
2. Associatiative circuit involved in higher level cognitive function
3. Limbic circuit involved in emotional and motivational processing
What activities does the basal ganglia encode for?
1. Decision to move
2. Direction of movement
3. Amplitude of movement
4. Motor expression of emotions
5. Making movements and behaviours more efficient (proceduralization)
Explain the direct pathway of the release-inhibition model of thalamic control
The direct pathway releases the UMN from their tonic inhibition, leading to an increase in motor output
The direct pathway facilitates target orientated movement
Explain the indirect pathway of the release-inhibition model of thalamic control
- counter balances the direct pathway
- puts a brake on the normal function of the direct pathway, resulting in a reduction of motor output
- The indirect pathway inhibits potentially competing movements
Define: Ballism
- Hyperkinetic disorder
- Characterized by sudden uncontrolled flinginmovements of the extremities.
What is the underlying pathophysiology of ballism?
A loss of the subthalamic nucleus (STN)
results in;
1) loss of excitatory fibres projecting to the Globus pallidus
2) This results in less inhibitory output from the GPi to the thalamus
3) therefore there is more excitatory output from thalamus to cortex and more motor output overall.
What are the characteristics of Huntington's Disease?
Deficits in cognition, behaviour and a characteristic hyperkinetic movement disorder
What is the pathophysiology of Huntington's Disease?
There is a degeneration of the striatum (caudate + putamen) as well as degeneration of temporal and frontal association corticies
- This results in a disinhibition of the output to the cortex and there is more excitation from the thalamus to the cortex overall.
D1 receptors from the SN provide what type of input to the direct pathway?
Excitatory - they enhance the input from the cortex
D2 receptors from the SN provide what type of input to the indirect pathway?
Inhibitory - results in a net loss of output from the thalamus, resulting in less cortical stimulation and less cortical output.
What is Parkinson's?
A motor disorder characterized by a decrease or loss of movement.
What is Parkinson's do to?
The loss of movement in Parkinson's is due to a degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra.
what are the treatment options for PD?
1. L-Dopa
2. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN).