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45 Cards in this Set

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Forebrain
integrates info, issues commands, higher-level processing, more developed in higher verts, thinking, planning, language.
Hyperpolarization
Neuron becomes more negative by Cl traveling in or K traveling out.
What does the brainstem refer to?
The dienceph (fore), the midbrain, pons(hind), and medulla (hind)
Depolarization
Less neg, caused by influx of Na through normally closed Na channels (they are closed at rest)
If you prick your toe and say "ouch" but your toe does not move away from the nail, what is damaged?
The ventral root is damaged because it is the output, and all output leaves from the ventral root.
Schwann cell
Myelin sheath for PNS, wraps self into sheath. Can only wrap around ONE NEURON AT A TIME.
Three structures of the limbic system
The cingulate cortex, hippocampus, amygdala
What is the function of the cranial nerves and how many are there?
12 which connect the brain to the head and contain sensory and motor fibers.
Astrocytes
BBB,nutritive,scar tissue, structural support
Four structures of the forebrain
Diencephalon, limbic system, Basal ganglia, cerebral cortex
Microglia
grwth factors, removes debris
3 major divisions of the brain
Hindbrain-most primitive
Forebrain-all structures above midbrain
Midbrain-short strip at the top of hindbrain
Movement of ions are influenced by?
Diffusion, concentration, and electrical forces
Limbic System
emotional tone (boredom anticipation), movitvation, memory, spatial navigation
Cerebral cortex
Brain bark, each hem into four lobes, adv cog func (planning, thinking)6 distinct layers
What does white matter, gray matter, and ventricles contain?
White matter is the fatty tissues; gray matter contains cell bodies and capillaries; and ventricles are filled with fluid
At what point is the charge chem and when electrical?
When in the axon, electrical, when in the synapse=chem
Thalamus
part of the dienceph, gateway/relay station for sensory info traveling to cortex
Ependymal
glial cell that makes CSF
sulci
grooves or fissures
Basal Ganglia and 3 structures
MOVEMENT, includes caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus. (remembers and stores how to ride a bike)
Hypothalamus
part of the diencephalon that is associated with temp reg, eating, and sex behavior, emotion, movement, hormone function (controls pit)
Potential
a force created when ions of opposite charge are separated
Function of ventricles
Shock absorption, maintenance of waste products, filled with CSF
Saltatory conduction
When the axon potential jumps from node to node in a mylinated axon
Hindbrain
Made up of pons, retic formation, cerebellum and medulla. Thought to coordinate movements and support movements of walking and posture
4 lobes and their functions
Frontal(planning of movements), Parietal (body sensations) Occipital (vision), temporal( hearing adv visual processing)
Corpus Callosum
Way for the two hemispheres to connect and communicate
Eight Principles
In,integrate out
Brain is functionally divided (in terms of motor and sensory)
Inputs and outputs to the brain are crossed
Symm and Assym (anatomy and function)
NS conducts business thru excitation and inhibition
CNS multiple levels of function
Org hierarchical and parallel(simple to complex yet same info to many paths)
Functions localized and distributed
What are the principle structures of the hindbrain?
The cerebellum, the pons, the medulla, and the reticular formation
Why dont ions in a neuron at reast diffuse and distrib evenly?
Bc the lipid bylayer has selective permeability and the Na channels are closed at rest. Also the An are too big to get out.
If you touch a flame, where does the input enter and where does the output leave from on the spinal cord?
The sensory receptor always enters the dorsal root and the output is always ventral.
Concentration gradient
Difference in concentration of a sub betw 2 regions of a container that allows the flow of the sub from an area of high to low.
tegmentum
the floor under the ventricle that has motor functions
2 types of cells
Neurons-hard to replace, 100 billion, produce mental and behav experience
Glial-support neurons, easy to replce
Gyri
outfoldings
How does the Na/K pump work?
It pumps three NA out and two K in.
Midbrain
Contains circuits for hearing and seeing as well as walking. Superior colliculus-visual, inferior-auditory
Oligodendrocyte
myelin sheath for CNS; can wrap its feet around multiple neurons
Cerebellum
necessary for fine, coordinated movements like flying in birds
Diffusion
the movement of ions from an area of high concentration to an area of low thru constant motion (smoke, dye)
Diencephalon
The part of the brain that contains the hypothalamus and thalamus.
Terms for front, back, top and bottom
Rostral (Anterior), Caudal (Posterior), Dorsal (Superior), Ventral (Inferior).
Medulla
controls basic vital functions
Reticular formation
a part of the hindbrain that has a netlike appearance and is associated with sleep-wake behavior and behavioral arousal