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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Beliefs are
Thinking is
a kind of information
a kind of computation
Emotions, motives, and desires
are a kind of feedback mechanism in which an agent senses the difference between a current state and goal state and executes operations designed to reduce the difference.
Computation’ in this context does not refer to what a commercially available digital computer does but to a more
generic notion of mechanical rationality.
In this conception, a computational system is one in which knowledge and goals are represented as
patterns in bits of matter (‘representations’).
he system is designed in such a way that one representation causes another to come into existence; and these changes mirror the laws of some normatively valid systems like
logic, statistics, or laws of cause and effect in the world.
Deriving new accurate beliefs from old ones in pursuit of a goal is not a bad definition of ‘intelligence’, so a principal advantage of the computational theory of mind (CTM) is that it explains how
a hunk of matter (a brain or a computer) can be intelligent.
Human behavior does not use a few general purpose principles such as a large brain, culture, language, socialization, learning, complexity, self-organization, or neural-network dynamics. Rather, the mind is said to embrace
subsystems dedicated to particular kinds of reasoning or goals .
Our intelligence, for example, consists of faculties dedicated to reasoning about
space, number, probability, logic, physical objects, living things, artifacts, and minds.
Our affective repertoire comprises emotions pertaining to the physical world, such as
fear and disgust, and emotions pertaining to the social and moral worlds, such as trust, sympathy, gratitude, guilt, anger, and humor.
Components of the
Cognitive Neuroscientific Approach
1. The Brain.
2. Computation. 3. Evolution.
The brain
he mind is what the brain does.
• How can you study human brains?
• An example: language in the left hemisphere.
Ways of Showing that Language is in the Left Hemisphere
. Neuropsychological syndromes (e.g., aphasia) 2. Tachistoscopic and Dichotic presentation
3. Split-brain patients
4. Sodium amytal (Wada test)
5. Neuroimaging
– Regional Cerebral Blood Flow
– Create map of rCBF
– Have subject engage in mental activity
– Subtract map of control condition from map of experimental condition
– Difference = parts of brain which “work harder” in experimental condition
expectations need to be modified to accommodate modern observations that show that the structural foundations of cognitive and behavioral domains take the form of
partially overlapping large-scale networks organized around reciprocally
interconnected epicenters.
Lesions which irreversibly impair performance in a cognitive domain help identify
network components that are critical for its integrity, whereas activations obtained by functional imaging when subjects are performing tasks related to the same domain also reveal the areas that participate in its coordination.
The traditional approach based on patients with focal lesions can thus be integrated with functional imaging experiments in order to obtain a more complete picture of the relationship between
brain structure and behavior
The 5 Known Large-scale Neuronal Networks
1)A right hemisphere-dominant spatial attention network with epicenters in dorsal posterior parietal cortex, the frontal eye fields, and the cingulate gyrus
2)A left hemisphere-dominant language network with epicenters in Wernicke's and Broca's areas
3) A memory-emotion network with epicenters in the hippocampo-entorhinal regions and the amygdaloid complex
4) An executive function- comportment network with epicenters in the lateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex
5)A face-and-object identification network with epicenters in lateral temporal and temporopolar cortices
Parahippocampal gyrus includes several cortical areas with connections to the hippocampal formation, one of the most important being
the entorhinal cortex.
Entorhinal cortex is the major input and output relay area between
association cortex and the hippocampal formation.
Neurons of the central nervous system are engaged in three major
operations:
Reception and registration of sensory stimuli from outside and from within n Planning and execution of complex motor acts (output)
n Intermediary processing interposed between input and output
manifestations of intermediary processing.
Thought, language, memory, self-awareness and even many aspects of mood and affect
The neural substrates for these intermediary processes are located principally within
he limbic system and cortical association areas
rom a behavioral point of view, the cerebral hemispheres can be divided into four major components:
primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex, association cortex, and limbic-paralimbic cortex.
Association cortex and limbic-paralimbic cortex are most involved with
intermediary processing.
Behavioral Features Unique to Individuals Are Likely to Be influenced by
environment and representative of social and cultural factors
Aspects of Behavior That Are Invariant across Individuals Are More
Likely to Be
Neurologically Determined
Examples of Universal Behaviors in Human Cultures
Living in groups which claim a territory and a sense of being distinct
n Status and prestige, both assigned (e.g. by kinship, age, sex) and achieved
n Some degree of economic inequality n Exchange of labor, goods, and services n Reciprocity in both gifts and retaliation
Coalitions and social reasoning
n Government in the sense of binding collective
decisions about public affairs
n Laws, rights and obligations, including laws against violence, rape, and murder
n Inheritance of property
n Sense of right and wrong; seeking of redress for
69
wrongs
Neuropsychiatric Symptoms are Related to
Regional Brain Dysfunction and Are
Not Disease-Specific
• Examples: •A pathy and disinhibition
Brain Dysfunction May Produce what kind of syndromes
Deficit Syndromes or Productive Syndromes
Examples of deficit syndromes
loss of function –memory, language, praxis, gnosis resulting in amnesia, aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia
Examples of productive syndromes
exhibits behaviors not previously present – depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviors
Neuropsychiatric Disorder Typically Reflect
Disruption of a System or Circuit
Common in abnormalities of the limbic system and frontal – subcortical circuits
associated with dysfunction of the anterior cingulate, globus pallidus, or medial thalamus – structures related to frontal-subcortical circuits.
apathy
may follow lesions of the orbital frontal cortex, ventral caudate nucleus, anterior globus pallidus, or medical dorsal thalamus.
disinhibition
The Developmental Phase of the Individual Must be Considered as Part of the Formula That Determines
the Frequency and Nature of the
Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Occurring in Conjunction with Brain Diseases
Suicide is associated with what disease
Huntington disease and epilepsy – rare in depression from Parkinson disease
Psychotic depression is common in
epilepsy and rare in Parkinson disease
Specific Regional Brain Changes Are Necessary but
Not Sufficient to Produce
Neuropsychiatric Symptoms
Neurologic Disorders Produce Both Structural and Chemical Alterations and Neuropsychiatric Disturbances May Be
Influenced
by Either of These
Pharmacologic Interventions in Neuropsychiatric Syndromes May Be
Disease-Specific, Transmitter-Specific,
or Symptom-Specific
Example of disease specific intervention
AEDs in epilepsy; Anti-inflammatory agents in collagen vascular and immune related disorders; Antibiotic for brain infections.
dopaminergic agents in Parkinson disease; cholinergic agents in Alzheimer disease. is an example of
transmitter specific intervention
antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics. are examples of
symptom specific interventions