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144 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Together, the ovarvies and testes are referred to as the "naughty bits" or ___________.
Gonads
In sequence, the four regions of the spine and spinal cord are, from head to bottom, the ___________, ___________, ___________, and ___________.
Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacral
The motor division of the autonomic nervous sytem that is active during periods of threat is the ___________ nervous system.
Sympathetic
The adrenal ___________ cortex releases hormones that influence energy metabolism, mineral balance, and reproductive behavior.
Cortex
The ___________ secretes releasing hormones.
hypothalamus
The ___________ nervous system is the major division of the peripheral nervous system that participates in the regulation of the body's internal environment.
autonomic
The H-shaped area of tissue in the core of the spinal cord is referred to as the spinal ___________ matter.
gray
Nerves emerge from the spinal cord at 31 different levels; ___________ motor nerves and ___________ sensory nerves emerge from each level
2
2
The ___________ secretes tropic hormones.
pituitary
Nerves that carry signals toward a structure are said to be ___________ with respect to that structure.
AFFERENT
The ___________ nervous system increases heart rate, stimulates adrenaline secretion from the adrenal medulla, and decreases salivation.
sympathetic
The brain and spinal cord together compose the ___________ nervous system.
Central
The nerves of the ___________ division of the ANS leave the CNS from the brain and the sacral region of the spinal cord.
parasympathetic
Two important glands are visible on the underneath surface of the brain. The __________ is suspended by a stalk from the ________________.
Pituitary
Hypothalamus
The two divisions of nthe peripheral nervous system are the autonomic nervous system and the ________ nervous system.
somatic
Sensory nerves enter the spinal cord via the ___________roots; motor nerves exit via the _________ roots.
Dorsal
Ventral
All ________________ glands release hormones into the blood stream.
endocrine
Sympathetic nervous system activity causes the adrenal _________ to release hormones, such as adrenaline, which habve effects similar to those of the sympathetic nervous system.
medulla
The __________ ____________ is the division of the CNS that mediates many of the rapid reflexive responses of our skeletal muscles, such as the reflexive withdrawal of a hand from a burning stove.
spinal cord
There are two kinds of fibers in the peripheral nervous system: sensory nerves and ___________ nerves.
motor
Most brain slices are cut in one of ___________ three different planes, which are at right angles to each other.
planes
Unilateral input to a brain structure is either contralateral or _________.
ipsilateral
The ___________ or frontal plane is perpendicular to both the horizonal and sagittal planes.
coronal
Any ____________ section separates the anterior part of the brain from the posterior part.
coronal
Any _______________ section separates the ventral part of the brain from the dorsal part.
horizontal
Any __________ section of the brain separates the left ear from the right ear.
sagittal
The anatomy of the spinal cord is usually studies in a series of ________ sections.
cross
All contralateral fibers must ______________.
decussate
In dogs, the direction toward the top of the head is referred to as the _________.
dorsal
In humans, the direction toward the back of the brain is referred to as ___________.
posterior
In dogs, the direction toward the back of the brain is referred to as ___________.
posterior
Toward the midsagittal plane is referred to as _____________.
medial
Away from the midsagittal plane is referred to as ______________.
lateral
The nose is _____ to the back of the head in humans.
anterior
The nose is _____ to the back of the head in dogs.
anterior
In primates, ventral parts of the brain are often erferred to as ______.
inferior
In humans, the tip of the nose is inferior, medial, and _______ to the eyes.
anterior
In primates, but not in other vertebrates, the direction toward the top of the head is often referred to as ________________.
superior
A section cut from the plane that divides the brain into equal left and right halves, is called a ________ section.
midsagittal
A lesion to both sides of the brain is said to be a ____________ lesion.
bilateral
A pathway from the right hand to the left side of the brain is said to be _______________ pathway.
contralateral
Posterior is also known as ____.
caudal
Anterior is also known as ___________.
rostral
APs are _________ potentials, that is they occur full blown or not at all.
all-or-none
Two kinds of fibers extend from the somas of many neurons: one long __________________ and many shoprt bushy ____________.
axons
dendrites
The tiny bulbous endings of axon branches are called ___________.
buttons
The ______ of a neuron is the large spherical structure that contains its genetic material.
nucleus
_____________ potentials are conducted nondecrementally.
Action
In the cell body, the _______ APPARATUS PACKAGES PROTEINS IN VESICLES FOR TRANSPORT TO OTHER PARTS OF THE NEURON.
Golgi
The process of neurotransmitter relase is called ____________________.
exocytosis
Neurotransmitter molecules are often stored in synaptic __________ near the presynaptic membrane.
vesicles
Together the dendrites and cell body are referred to as the __________ area of a neuron.
receptive
Action potentials are generated at the axon ___________.
hillock
Each synapse is sandwiched between a _________ membrane and a ___________ membrane.
presynaptic
postsynaptic
Neurotransmitter molecules, once released, diffuse across the ___________.
synapse
Prominent in the cytoplasm of the cell body is a system of plate-shaped membranous sacs, much of which as a rough appearance. This structure is called the _____________ ___________.
endoplasmic reticulum
Neurotransmitted molecules bind in a key-in-lock fashion to postsynaptic _____________.
receptors
The cone-shaped junction between cell body and the axon is the _____________.
axon hillock
Proteins are synthesized on ____________, which give the rough endoplasmic reticulum its rough appearance.
ribosomes
Unlike APs, EPSPs and IPSPs are conducted instantly and _____________.
decrementally
The ____________ or soma is the metabolic center of a neuron.
cell body
Gaps in the myelin of myelinated axons are called nodes of ____________.
Ranvier
Conduction in myelinated axons is called ______ conduction.
saltatory
In the terminal buttons, the _______________ manufactures synaptic vesicles from fragments of button membrane.
Golgi apparatus
__________________ myelinate CNS axons.
Ogliodendrocytes
______________ receptors are associated with signal proteins and G-proteins.
metabotrophic
____________ _________, when open, permit the passage of ions through the cell membrane.
ion channels
The developing vertebrate nervous system frist becomes visible as a patch of cells on the ____________ surface of the embryo; this patch of cells is called the neural _________.
dorsal
plate
The rhombencephalon, the mesencephalon, and the prosencephalon are known more commonly as the ____________, the ____________, and the ____________, respectively.
hindbrain
midbrain
forebrain
The lips of the neural _________ fuse to form the neural tube.
groove
The alignment of developing neurons into the structures of the nervous system is called ________________.
aggregation
The telencephalon and the ____________ compose the forebrain.
diencephalon
In humans, the human neural plate is first apparent about ____ days after conception.
18
The _____________ and the myelencephalon compose the hindbrain.
metencephalon
Migration of neurons occurs along a temporary network of ___________ glial cells.
radial
The cells of the neural tube proliferate most rapidly at its ____________ end.
anterior
At the tip of each growing axon is a _________________ __________.
growth cone
Paradoxically, neuron _____ is an important phase of neural development; it reduces the number of neurons in some parts of the brain by up to 85%.
death
Many axons become _______________ by ________ cells.
myelinated
glial
During the 4th week of prenatal development, swellings first become visible on the anterior end of the neural tube. At first, there are ____ of them.
3
The neural tube develops into the CNS; the neural __________ develops into the PNS.
crest
Of the brain's five divisions, the most anterior is the ________, and the most posterior is the _________________.
telencephalon
myencephalon
Prior to the development of the neural plate, the cells that will ultimately compose it are ______________.
totipotential
_____________ occurs in the part of the neural tube adjacent to its fluid-filled interior.
Proliferation
The ______________lies between the diencephalon and the metencephalon.
mesencephalon
Fasciculation results in later growth cones following the trail of the ________ growth cone.
pioneer
The fact that some axons grow to their correct target cells, even when the target cellsw have been transplatned to a new location supports the ____________ theory.
chemoaffinity
The fact that some axons grow to the location of their correct target scells, even when the target cells have been removed supports the __________ theory.
blueprint
The brain is composed of the two cerebral hemispheres and the ____________ _________.
brain stem
The __________ nerve is the 10th cranial nerve; it is the longest cranial nerve, and it conducts signals to and from the organs of the gut.
vagas
Together, the diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalong compose the ________ ________.
brain stem
Tehtoughest menynx is the __________.
dura mater
Connecting the third and fourth eventricles is the cerebral _____________.
aqueduct
Cerebrospinal fluid flows through the ____________ space, the space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater.
subarachnoid
The pia mater adheres to the surface of the _________ nervous system.
central
The spinal cord has no ventricles; instead it has the ___________ ____________.
central canal
The _____ _____________ is located in the third ventricle and connects the left and right diencephalon.
massa intermedia
The ____________ ventricles are the two ventricles of the cerebral hemispheres.
lateral
The inner menynx is the _______ ________.
pia mater
When babies are born with tumors near the cerebral aqueduct, ___________ is often the result.
hydrocephalus
The most posterior area of the brain stem is the _____________.
myencephalon
Tracts are to nuclei as nerves are to _______________.
ganglia
There are ____ pairs of crainial nerves.
12
The corpus callosum is the largest cerebral _______________.
commisure
The _____________ fissure divides the two cerebral hemispheres.
longitudinal
The olfactory, optic, and vestibulocochlear nerves are the three pairs of purely ____________ cranial nerves.
sensory
The motor fibers of the cranial nerves are considered to be part of the ______________ division of the autonomic nervous system.
parasympathetic
Together, the two cerebral hemispheres compose the _____________.
telencephalon
The ___________ nerve is the 5th cranial nerve; it has three major branches, which carry signals to and from the face.
trigeminal
Tracts and nerves are composed mainly of ___________.
axons
The two cerebral ventricles that are located on the midline of the brain are the __________and ___________ ventricles.
3rd
4th
The plural of menynx is ______________.
meninges
The myelencephalon is commonly called the ____________.
medulla
In general, each cerebral hemisphere controls the __________ side of the body.
contralateral
Running up the core of the brain stem from the medulla to the midbrain is the ________ ______________; it plays a role in alertness, attention, and sleep.
reticular formation
The tectum comprises two pairs of nuclei: the _________ superior colliculi, which play a role in vision, and the _________ colliculi, which play a role in audition.
Superior
inferior
The metencephalon minus the cerebellum equals the ________.
pons
The __ ___________________ is located in the _________ ventricle between the two lobes of the thalamus.
massa intermedia
third
Cranial nerves 5, 6, 7, and 8 extend from the ___ to the metencephalon
pons
The myencephalon consists mainly of ____________ matter.
white
The cerebellum is connected to the rest of the brain by the three pairs of cerebellar _______, the most inferior of which connects the cerebellum to the ____________ of the medulla.
peduncles
olives
The ____________________ tracts, which are major/descending movement pathways, decussate in theposterior part of the medulla.
pyramidal
Releasing factors are released by hypothalamic neurons into hypothatamopituitary portal system, which carries them to the ________ pituitary.
anterior
The cerebellum is part of the ______________.
metencephalon
Oxytocin and vasopressin are synthesized and released by neurons that have their cell bodies in the paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus of the ________________ and their terminal buttons in the _________ pituitary.
HYPOTHALAMUS
POSTERIOR
The ventral posterior, lateral geniculate, and medial geniculate are sensory relay nuclei that are located in the ___________.
thalamus
Damage to the _______________ results in ataxia.
cerebellum
The ventromedial nuclei, suprachiasmatic nuclei, and mammillary bodies are nuclei of the ___________.
hypothalamus
Strictly speaking, it is not the pituitary that releases topic hormones; it is the ______________ pituitary.
anterior
The cerebral aqueduct is located in the ____________.
mesencephalon
The mesencephalon minus the tegmentum equals the ______________.
tectum
The left and right cerebralo hemispheres are separated by the __________ fissure.
longitudinal
The _________________ is an allocortical structure of the medial temporal lobes.
hippocampus
Just superior to the corpus callosum is the ________ cortex, which is a structure of the limbic system.
cingulate
At the posterior pole of each hemisphere is the ___________ lobe.
occipital
Most human cerebral cortex is neocortex; only about 10% is ____________.
allocortex
The caudate, putamemn,globus pallidus, and amygdala are collectively referred to as the ____________ ____________.
basal ganglia
Association areas receive much of their input from _______ sensory areas.
secondary
The primary motor area receives substantial input from the ______________ motor areas.
secondary
Caudate plus putmen equals ______________.
striatum
Parkinson's disease is characterized by a deterioration of dopaminergic neurons that project from the substantia nigra to the _______________.
striatum
The _________ and ______________ gyri are on opposie sides of the central fissure; their functions are motor and sensory, respectively.
pre control
post control
Each area of secondary sensory cortex receives input from only one _________ sensory area.
primary
The primary gustatory cortex is in the parietal lobe, largely out of site in the _______________ fissure.
lateral