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47 Cards in this Set

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When divided into three parts based on position, how are the parts of the brain identified?
Forebrain
Midbrain
Hindbrain
This part of the brain contains olfactory obes, the cerebrum, thalmus, hypothalmus, and pituitary gland
Forebrain
This part of the brain contains the optic lobes
Midbrain
This part of the brain contains the cerebellum and medulla oblongata
Hindbrain
Nerve tissue within the brain
Gray matter
Insulated nerve cells
White matter
Oldest part of the brain (in terms of evolution)
Brainstem
Newest part of the brain (in terms of evolution)
Frontal Lobes
Sometimes called the Reptillian Brain
Hindbrain
Contains the spinal cord, medulla oblongata, the pons, and the cerebellum
Hindbrain
Carries information to the brain and instructions from the brain
Spinal cord
Helps control the body's autonomic functions such as respiration, digestion and heart rate, as well as acting as a relay station for nerve signals
Medulla Oblongata
Regulates and coordinates movement, posture and balance. Also involved in learning movement.
Cerebellum
Relays sensory information between the cerebellum and cerebrum; aids in relaying other messages in the brain; controls arousal, and regulates respiration. Some believe it has a role in dreaming.
Pons
Area sometimes called the "old mammalian brain" or emotional brain
Limbic System
Where the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus are located.
Limbic System
Performs a primary role in the formation and storage of emotionally-charged memories, as well as triggering responses of fear and anger.
Amygdala
Plays important role in the formation of new memories about experienced events, as well as spatial orientation or "place" memory.
Hippocampus
Influences hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior; regulates the pituitary gland; controls circadian rhythms and body temperature.
Hypothalamus
Relays most sensory signals within the brain and plays a function in motor control.
Thalamus
Where the frontal lobes, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, Broca's Area, and the Corpus Callosum is located.
Neocortex
Sometimes called the Rational Brain or "neomammalian brain."
Neocortex
What separates the brain hemispheres.
Longitudinal fissure
The neural bridge that connects the two hemispheres and facilitates communication between them.
Corpus callosum
Linear reasoning and language functions, as well as a sense of past and present, are often lateralized to this part of the brain.
Left hemisphere
Holistic reasoning language functions (such as intonation and accentuation), spatial reasoning, artistic ability, and imagination, are often lateralized to part of the brain.
Right hemisphere
Controls speech, language recognition and facial nerves.
Broca's Area
An evolved portion of the brain that handles reasoning, problem solving, judgment, and impulse control; also higher emotions such as empathy and altruism; motor control and memory.
Frontal lobe
Integrates sensory information to form a single perception, constructs a spatial coordinate system to represent the world around us, and processes pain.
Parietal Lobe
Involved in semantics both in speech and vision, auditory sensation, and emotion and memory. Houses the auditory cortex.
Temporal Lobe
Controls visual sensation and processing. Houses the visual cortex.
Occipital Lobe
Responsible for the comprehension of speech and the selection of content words.
Wernicke's area
This neurotransmitter modulates anger, aggression, body temperature, mood, sleep, sexuality, appetite, and metabolism. Low quantities can contribute to anxiety and impulsive behavior.
Serotonin
This neurotransmitter triggers wakefulness or arousal and, when scarce, can lead to depression.
Norepinephrine
This neurotransmitter lowers arousal and reduces anxiety through its inhibitory functions.
GABA
This neurotransmitter is involved with pleasure and love, desire, and voluntary movement and motivation. Drugs that act on it, causing euphoria, tend to be addictive.
Dopamine
Three types of substances that can act as neurotransmitters.
Amino acids
Peptides
Monoamines
This excitatory neurotransmitter is involved in arousal and alertness.
Epinephrine (aka Adrenalin)
This neurotransmitter is involved in arousal, focused attention, energy, and feelings. Can cause agitation and anxiety.
Norepinephrine (aka Noradrenalin)
Levels of epinephrine in the CNS are only about __% of the levels of norepinephrine.
10%
If so much serotonin is available throughout the body, why can't the brain use it?
Serotonin in the brain is independently synthesized from tryptophan transported across the blood-brain barrier.
Of all neurotransmitters, this is the most strongly affected by diet.
Serotonin
This ANS neurotransmitter slows the heart rate, relaxes the physiological state, stimulates digestion and is also thought to initiate REM sleep when most dreaming occurs.
Acetylcholine
A recently discovered neurotransmitter that affects pain perception, depression, appetite, short-term memory, and fertility.
Anandamide
This neurotransmitter is responsible for the narcotic effect of marijuana, which produces a natural high.
Anandamide
This inhibitory neurotransmitter appears to promotes sleep and suppresses arousal. Caffeine blocks its receptors, leading to alertness.
Adenosine
This influences the release of hormones from other glands.
Pituitary gland