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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
HINDBRAIN (3)
comprised of the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
MEDULLA
coordinates swallowing, coughing, sneezing, breathing, heartbeat, and BP
damage is often fatal
PONS
connects 2 halves of cerebellum
helps integration of movements to right and left sides
CEREBELLUM
(little brain) important for balance and posture.
works with basal ganglia & motor cortex to coordinate refined motor movements
implicated in sensorimotor learning and ability to shift one stimulus to another
SMALLER THAN NORMAL HAS BEEN LINKED TO AUTISM
DAMAGE TO CEREBELLUM
ataxia: slurred speech, severe tremors and loss of balance
MIDBRAIN
reticular formation: extends from spinal cord thru hindbrain and midbrain into hypothalamus. incl. respiration, coughing,vomiting, posture, locomation and REM sleep
DAMAGE: disrupts sleep-wake cycle and can produce permanent coma-like state of sleep.
RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM
vital to consciousness, arousal, and wakefulness.
FOREBRAIN (2)
diencephalon & telencephalon
DIENCEPHALON (2)
thalamus & hypothalamus
TELENCEPHALON(3)
basal ganglia, limbic system, cerebral cortex
THALAMUS
relay station, transmits incoming snesory info to areas of cortex for all senses except olfactory (which goes to amygdala directly)
FUNCTIONS OF THALAMUS
relay station, motor activity, language, & memory
WERNICKE-KORSAKOFF SYNDROME
atrophy of neurons in thalamus & hypothalamus. caused by thiamine deficiency as result of alcoholism. severe anterograde amnesia, retrograde amensia, and confabulation.
ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA
new events not stored in long term memory, can't recall new events, but can recall past
RETROGRADE AMNESIA
can recall new events, but can't recall sections of the past.
CONFABULATION
creating memories to replace one that a person can't retrieve
FUNCTIONS OF HYPOTHALAMUS
one of smallest brain structures but vital to hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, body temp, movement and emotional rxs. monitors body's internal states
DAMAGE TO HYPOTHALAMUS
can cause uncontrollable laughter, intense rage, aggression.
SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS
located in hypothalamus and mediates sleep-wake cycle and circadian rythms. may be involved with SAD
BASAL GANGLIA
incl. caudate nucleus, ptamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra
FUNCTION BASAL GANGLIA
planning, organizing, coodinating vountary movement
and regulating amplitude and direction of motor activity, sensorimotor learning, smiling when happy, frowning when sad, runing when afraid.
DISORDERS OF BASAL GANGLIA
Huntington's, Parkinson's, Tourette's, mania, depression, OCD, psychosis
PARTS OF LIMBIC SYSTEM (4)
amygdala, septum, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus
FUNCTION OF LIMBIC SYSTEM
mediation of emotional
AMYGDALA
integrates, coodinates, directs motivational and emotional states. attaches emotions to memories, involved in recall of emotionally charged experiences.
KLUVER-BUCY SYNDROME
1st described in monkeys. results in docile behavior, apathy, hyperphagia (overeating)hypersexuality, & agnosias ( an inability to recognize the significance or meaning of events or objects
FUNCTION OF SEPTUM
exerts inhibitory effect on emotions
SEPTAL RAGE
lesions on the septum increase heightened emotional states and vicious behaviors
FUNCTION OF CINGULATE GYRUS
satisfaction center, responsible for feelings of satisfaction re: eating, sex, and pain response. removal of parts of this results in alleviating or reducing intense, chronic pain
FUNCTION OF HIPPOCAMPUS
ass/w learning and memory. processes spatial, visual, verbal information, and converting short term memory to long term.
REMOVAL OF HIPPOCAMPUS
to tx. severe epilepsy. anterograde and retrograde amnesia for events up to 3 yrs prior to surgery