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40 Cards in this Set

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Describe how the embryonic prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon undergo changes to develop into the brain.
Whole structure begins to fill, prosencephalon expands towards sides forming telencephalon and diencephalon.
Rhombencephalon becomes metencephalon, and myelencephalon and also bulges outward as what was the prosencephalon begins to curve backwards lack ram's horns.
Structure(s) contained in telencephalon?
Cerebrum
Structure(s) contained in metencephalon?
Cerebellum, pons
Structure(s) contained in myencephalon?
Medulla oblongata
Label diag 12
1. Lateral ventricles
2. interventricular foramen
3. third ventricle
4. mesencephalon aqeduct
5. Pons
6. fourth ventricle
7. medulla oblumgata
8. CC
9. SC
Label Diag 13
1. Lateral ventricles
2. Interventricular foramen
3. Third ventricle
4. Mesencephalon aqueduct
5. Fourth ventricle
6. CC
7. Cerebellum
Describe how each layer of the cranial meninges is organized.
Dura mater: fused to periosteum of cranical bones, no epidural space.

Arachnoid:Covers brain as a smooth surface (doesn't follow underlying folds of brain)

Pia: sticks to surface of brain, anchored by astrocytes, extends to every fold
How does the arachnoid layer contribute to protection of the brain?
Has space filled with CSF
Label diag 14
1. Dural sinus
2. Dura (endosteal)
3. Cranium
4. Dura (meningeal)
5. Subdural space
6. Arachnoid
7. Subarachnoid space
8. Pia
9. Cerebrum
Role of dural folds?
What are dural sinuses?
Provide additional stabilization support.

Large collecting veins in dural folds
Explain how the cranium, dural folds, and meninges prevent brain damage upon impact.
Cranium cradles, dural folds hold brain in position, CSF in subarachnoid space cushions against sudden jolts, and shocks.
Roles of CSF?
Cushion, support, transport nutrients/chemical messengers, waste products
Role of BBB?
Isolates neural tissue from general circulation?
Why does the BBB have incomplete areas? Where are they located?
Hormonal secretion, formation of CSF/

Hypothala, Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, choroid plexus
Label diag 15
1. Cerebral cortex
2. Diencephalon
3. Brain stem
4. Cerebellum
5. Mesencephalon
6. Pons
7. Medulla oblumgata
Role of medulla oblongata? Contents?
Connects BS with SC

Relay stations and reflex centers (Olivary nuc, cardiovascular, resp centers), digestive)
Function of reticular formation? Where does it begin?
Consciousness, medulla oblongata
Contents of pons? Function?
Sensory & motor nuclei, help control respiration, link cerebellum with BS, SC, cerebrum, ascending/descending/transverse tracts
Function of cerebellum? Contents?
Adjusts postural muscles, tunes ongoing movements

Peduncles link with BS, cerebrum and SC (interconnects two cerebellar hemispheres)
Contents of mesencephalon?
General fn?
Tectum (roof), colliculi (visual, auditory reflexes)

Nuclei: red (subconscious limb position), SN, peduncles (relay motor commands from cerebrum), RAS HQ (attention, alertness)

Relay center
What are the three portions of the diencephalon?
Epithalamus, Thalamus, Hypothalamus
Role of diencephalon?
Diurnal, seasonal rhytms, final relay point for afferent sensory info
Role of thalamus? Afferent or efferent?
Coordinates activities of cerebrum and basal nuclei

Both
Roles of hypothalamus? Afferent or efferent?
EFFERENT!

Motor: visceral functions

Somatic (subconscious) motor control
Autonomic control
Coordinates endocrine & NS
Secretes hormones
Emotions, drives, voluntary/autonomic fns
Regulated body temp
Coordinates circadian cycles
Fns of limbic system?
Emotions, behavioral drives
What fibers make up the white matter of the cerebrum? List subtypes and fns.
Association: Arcuate (connect gyri), longitudinal fasciculi (connect other parts of cerebrum--more extensive)

Commissural: connect hemispheres

Projection: goes to other parts of brain via diencephalon
List the three components of the basal nuclei. Are they grey or white matter?
Functions of basal nuclei?
Caudate nucleus
Globus pallidus
Putamen

Grey matter

Coordinate events for movements initiated in cortex, control muscle tone that supports voluntary movement.
What would occur in hyperactive basal nuclei?
Antagonistic muscles wouldn't relax.
Role of motor cortex? Location in relation to central sulcus?
INitiate voluntary movement, anterior (in front of)
Role of somatic sensory cortex? Location in relation to central sulcus?
Reeive sensory info: touch, pressure, pain, taste, temp
Posterior (behind)
Going clockwise and starting at 3 (in a lateral view of the brain), list the senses processed by the parts of the brain.
Visual, Hearing, small, taste
Define:
Primary motor association
Somatic sensory association
Visual association
Coordination of motor response

Understanding & coordination of sensory information

Understanding and coordination of visual informaiton
What is the function of the general interpretive area? Location?
Symptoms if damaged?
Receives info from all sensory areas.
Left hemisphere

Can't interpret what is seen or heard, words understood
What is the function of the speech center?
Regulates patterns of breathing and vocalization, coordinates muscles for speech
What is the function of the prefrontal cortex?
Coordinates info from secondary/special association areas, performs abstract intellectual functions, CONSEQUENCES of actions
How do cortical functions differ between hemispheres?
Left: general interpretive and speech centers (language based skills)

Right: spatial relationships & analyses
What are the three categories cranial nerves can be placed into?
Special senses, strictly motor, and mixed
What are the special senses? Which cranial nerves are involved?
Smell (olfactory)
Vision (optic)
Balance, hearing, position, movement (vestibulocochlear)
Give an example of a mixed cranial nerve. Why is it mixed?
Glossopharyngeal, tongue (thermo, mechanical), pharynx, swallowing
Examples of cranial reflexes. Nerves in control?
eye blinking, reaction of head to sudden sounds, light on pupils, cranial nerves