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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
in medial temporal lobe
emotional content of new memories.
Basal Forebrain
bottom of front of brain
ucleus basalis
diagonal band
medial septum
substantia innominate
Acetylcholine-affects brain cells ability to transmit info to one another
lies behind and under the cerebral cortex
fine control and coodination of skeletal muscles
fine motor movement
Damage results in difficult and clumsy movement
Cerebral Cortex/Cortex
Outer layer of the brain-gray and white matter.
Frontal Lobes
Front of brain
executive functions-planning-judgement-self control
motor control including ability to form speech.
Parietal Lobes
top of the brain on each side of midline
process sensory information -touch sensation
Occipital Lobe
rear of brain above cerebellum-
visual processing
Temporal Lobes
each side of the brain under the temples.
auditory processing
ability to understand words
Contain hippocampus-which processes new memory formation
under medial temporal lobe on each side of the brain
Critical for formation of new autobiographical and fact memories
Memory gateway for new memories
Damage=anterograde amnesia-loss of ability to form new memories
Sensitive to global reductions of oxygen
Progressive cognitive decline.
Memory deficits-impaired abstract thinking-poor judgement-disorientation-depression-agitation.
Late stages pts become dependent
Huntingtons Disease
Motor Disease-involuntary dance-like movements
degeneraton of basal ganglia
Early stages-emotional problems-depression-irritability
Later stages-subcortical dementia occurs-memory loss
Parkinsons Disease
deterioration of neurons in substranta nigra
Tremor in muscles
rigidity in movement
problems maintaining posture
Late Stages face/expressionless
eye blinking
slow speech
difficulty standing
Levodopa/Sinemet combat these symptoms
25-30% develop dementia
Korsakoff's Disease
B-1 vitiam deficiency
Common cause Alcoholism
Anterograde amnesia-cannot form new memories
Retrograde amnesia-disruption of pre-existing memories
Unable to use time relationships
Storage-retention and recall of information.
Long Term Potentiation (LPT)
2 neurons active together-connection will strengthen over time=Activity in one neuron will produce activity in the other neuron.
Catagories of Memory Sysems
Sensory Memory
Stimulus information briefly held in memory
Last a Few Seconds before decaying
If they last-like an internal copy
Iconic Memory-Buffer Area incoming visual info stored as a picture or icon.
Echoic Memory - auditory information stored as an echo
Short Term Memory
Limited capacity-5-9 items(7+2 or 7-2)
Chunking numbers placed together 1776-2001-1941
Long Term Memory
Memory that lasts for years
Declarative info available to conscious recollection and verbal retrieval
Episodic Declarative mem-Autobiographical info
Semantic Declarative Mem-factual info about the world.
Brain Stuctures & Memory
Cortex-Memory Storage
Inferior Temporal Cortex-Visual Information
Associations-Frontal Cortex
Hippocampus-Formation of new declarative Memories
Amygdala-emotional memory
Pathology of memory
Hippocampus/medial temporal lobe damage=devastation of ability to acquire new declarative memory
Novel items are more likely to be remembered
Posttraumatic Amnesia
Memory disruption following injury-
injury leads to coma
Initial confusion
permanent retrograde amnesia for events leading up to the injury
permanent anterograde amnesia for events following the injury.
Psychogenic Amnesia
Functional Amnesia loss of important personal information
Fugue State Amnesia
Forgotten pasts and identity
extremely rare
normally resolves w/ time.
Dissociative Amnesia
memory loss restricted to a particular period of time.
A psychological phenomenon rather then physiological
May resolve w/ tx.
Medulla-Breathing, heartbeat-blood pressure-vital to life.
influences flow of info between spinal cord and brain
Pons-connects 2 halves of cerebellum
integrates movements between rt and lt sides of body
respiration, feeding, dreaming-waking from sleep
Cerebellum (Little Brain)
Balance /posture=Skeletal Muscles
Damage-Ataxia=slurred speach, severe tremors loss of balance=
Reticular formation (Reticular Activating System)
Consciousness/arousal-Screens sensory input, even during sleep and arouses brain when needed.
damage disrupts sleep wake cycle and can produce permanent state fo sleep
Anasthetics deactivate this area
Breathing -sneezing coughing and REM sleep.
Thalamus-Brain relay station transmits incoming sensory info to cortex except smell processes info from higher areas of brain to lower areas
Korsakoff's Syndrone affects dorsomedial thalamus
Petit mal seizures begin in thalamus.
Controls hunger,thirst,sex, sleep, body temp, movement and expression of emotion
Maintains body's homeostasis
Controls pituitary and other endocrine glands.
Superfhiasmatic nucleus located in hypothalmus-controls circadian rhythms
Vertromedial Hypothalamus-inhibits eating-lesions cause hyperphagia-overeating
Laterial Hypothalamic area-initiates eating
lesions cause aphagia-stopping eating
Basal Gangalia (Caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus
Regulatees muscle tone and fine motor control
Damage to Caudate nucleus and putamen -rigidity or uncontrolled movement.
Damage to globus pallidus-akinesia or mutism
Substantia Nigra-Degeneration of dopamine cells lead to PArkinsons
ADHD-smaller Caudate nucleus and globus pallidus.
Limbic System-Amygdala
Located in Medial Temporal
emotions and senses emotional content of new memories.
mediates aggression
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome reduced fear and aggression, increased docility-compulsive oral behaviors,altered dietary habits and hypersexuality.
Smaller in Schizophrenia
Limbic System-Septum
Inhibitory effect on emotions
Septal Rage Syndrome hyperemotionality-vicious behaviors w/ septum damage
Brain pleasure center
Limbic System-Cingulate Gyrus
Satisfaction Center
Limbic System-Hippocampus
Medial temporal lobe
Learning -memory consolidation-converting short-term memory to ltm.
damage=deficits in recent memory up to 3 years prior to trauma-cannot form new long term memories
Glutimate found here
Smaller in schizophrenia
Cerebral Cortex-Frontal Lobe
Motor, premotor and prefrontal areas
Motor cortex controls voluntary movements
Premotor cortex-Broca's Area left side speech production
Damage=expressive aphasia
Prefrontal cortex dictates emotion and executive functioning-responsible for short term memory
ADHD-right frontal lobe prefrontal cortex-reduced metabolic activity.
Cerebral Cortex-Parietal Lobe
Somatosensory cortex-governs pressure, temperature, pain, taste
damage results in impaired facial recognition tactile agnosia, impaired spatial ability, body image disturbances-
Lesions-in right parietal cause dressing apraxia and contralateral neglect. ignoring left side of body
lesions in left parietal cause ideational apraxia-ability to carryout a sequence of movements.
Gerstmann Syndrome-finger agnosia, left right confusion, agraphia and acalculia
Damage to Parietla lobe causes constructional apraxia
Temporal Lobe
Auditory Cortex mediating auditiory sensation and perception
Wernicke's Area (Usually on lft side-Language comprehension.
Damage produces receptive aphasia
Essential to Long term memory
Removal rt temporal lobe impairs nonverbal memory tasks face recognition, spatial position.
Lf removal produces impaired verbal memory-recall word lists and recognition of words and numbers
contains parts of the hippocampus
Amygdala-emotion/agression found in medial temporal lobe. memory of emotional significant events
Greatest neuron loss Alzheimers is medial temporal lobe
stimualation produces fear
Occipital Lobe
Visual Cortex-visual perception, recognition and memory.
damage produces disturbances in auditory perception, mood and sexual activity
damage rt occipital lobe produces symptoms ability to point and bumping into pointed to object-unable to name object or describe purpose.
Acetylcholine (Ach)
Found through out nervous system.
Peripeheral nervous system causes muscles to contract
Botulin and Curare paralyze by blocking ACh actions
Myasthenia gravis fatigue and weakness of skeletal muscles <ACh
Central nervous system-memory
Degeneration in Alzheimer's
REM sleep
Sleep-wake cycle regulation
Antiocholinergic drgs block effects of ACh-used for Parkinsons's and side effects of antipsychotics
Alzheimer's drgs (Cognex)prevent breakdown of ACh.
>much =Schizophrenia, mania, tourettes and stimulant intoxication.
Depression and Parkinson's disease are associated with too little.
Degeneration in the subtrantia nigra =Parkinson's relieved by L-Dopa.
<dopamine meds relieve tardive dyskinsia
Regulates movement
Regulates mood, hunger, temp regulation, sexual activity, arousal sleep and pain.
Schizophrenia associated with too much serotonin
Autism linked to high levels.
Depression w/ too much
Mania=too much
PTSD, OCD and aggression linked to low levels
Anorexia linked to high levels
Schizophrenia=too much
Seizures=Too much
Barbiturates and other depressants affect GABA levels
Low levels associated w/huntingtons's chorea
Raising GABA levels may relieve tardive dyskinesia
Lower levels of pain
Associated w/ pleasure, control of emotions, memory, learning and sexual behavior
Associated w/ memory-Responsible for long term potentiation (allows for formation of longterm memories)
Associated w/ memory loss and cognitive problems in alcoholics
Associated w/ seizures, Huntington's, Alzheimer's and stroke-related damage.