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151 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Four main regions of brain:
Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Brain stem
Diencephalon
Basic functions of Cerebrum:
Higher level thinking, consciousness, sensory perception, motor movement
Basic functions of Cerebellum:
Balance and equilibrium
Basic functions of Brain Stem:
Vital centers (Breathing, blood pressure)
Basic functions of Diencephalon:
Homeostasis center--hormonal control, control of smooth muscle, temperature regulation
Three types of meninges:
Dura mater, Pia mater, Arachnoid
Singular form of meninges:
Meninx
What is Dura mater composed of, where is it found?
Fibrous, Irregular connective tissue fused to skull
Falx Cerebri
Part of Dura mater that extends into the longitudinal fissure of brain.
Falx Cerebelli
Separates sides of cerebellum
What is the "subdural space?" What is the clinical significance of this space?
Space underneath the Dura mater/ Subdural hematoma can form if blood is localized here.
What is an epidural hematoma?
Collection of blood in the space above the Dura mater (between dura mater and cranium of skull).
Arachnoid
Type of meningial tissue, made up of fine collagen & elastic fibers--forms "spider web" of tissues.

Arachnoid protrudes through dura mater into superior sagittal sinus.
Where is Arachnoid meninx located relative to other two types of meninges?
In between Dura and Pia mater
Subarachnoid Space--what watery substance is found here?
Underneath arachnoid---Cerebrospinal fluid located here.
Pia mater
Fine collagen and elastic fibers that extend into sulci (crevices) of the brain.
What is Cerebrospinal fluid, where is it made, located, and what does it contain?
Filtered plasma made inside ventricles of brain by choroid plexus--contains water, proteins (very few), sugars (also few)
What is the function of CSF?
Cushioning--neural structures
Support--Brain
Transport--nutrients, chemical messengers, waste products
What is the Choroid plexus, and where is it found?
A network of specialized ependymal cells and capillaries that are involved in production of cerebrospinal fluid.

Found in all four ventricles of brain.
What is Brain ventricle?
Chambers formed by expansions of parts of brain during development.
Pia mater
Fine collagen and elastic fibers that extend into sulci (crevices) of the brain.
What is Cerebrospinal fluid, where is it made, located, and what does it contain?
Filtered plasma made inside ventricles of brain by choroid plexus--contains water, proteins (very few), sugars (also few)
What is the function of CSF?
Cushioning--neural structures
Support--Brain
Transport--nutrients, chemical messengers, waste products
What is the Choroid plexus, and where is it found?
A network of specialized ependymal cells and capillaries that are involved in production of cerebrospinal fluid.

Found in all four ventricles of brain.
What is Brain ventricle?
Chambers formed by expansions of parts of brain during development.
How many brain ventricles are there and what are the names?
Four: Two lateral ventricles, third, and fourth ventricle.
Superior Sagittal sinus--where is it located, and what is its function?
Large vein in Longitudinal fissure of the brain--carries away CSF, excess is absorbed with blood to prevent too much "water on brain" or conditions such as hydrocephalus.
What is the direction of flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain?
Lateral ventricle--> Third Ventricle --> Cerebral Aquaduct --> Fourth Ventricle --> Pia mater (subarachnoid space around brain) --> Superior Sagittal sinus (vein) through arachnoid villi
Blood brain barrier--which types of substances can pass?
Astrocytes filter which cells get to neurons from bloodstream (fat soluble materials pass easily).
What is located in Gray matter?
Concentrated cell bodies
How many brain ventricles are there and what are the names?
Four: Two lateral ventricles, third, and fourth ventricle.
Superior Sagittal sinus--where is it located, and what is its function?
Large vein in Longitudinal fissure of the brain--carries away CSF, excess is absorbed with blood to prevent too much "water on brain" or conditions such as hydrocephalus.
What is the direction of flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain?
Lateral ventricle--> Third Ventricle --> Cerebral Aquaduct --> Fourth Ventricle --> Pia mater (subarachnoid space around brain) --> Superior Sagittal sinus (vein) through arachnoid villi
Blood brain barrier--which types of substances can pass?
Astrocytes filter which cells get to neurons from bloodstream (fat soluble materials pass easily).
What is located in Gray matter?
Concentrated cell bodies of neurons
How many brain ventricles are there and what are the names?
Four: Two lateral ventricles, third, and fourth ventricle.
Superior Sagittal sinus--where is it located, and what is its function?
Large vein in Longitudinal fissure of the brain--carries away CSF, excess is absorbed with blood to prevent too much "water on brain" or conditions such as hydrocephalus.
What is the direction of flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain?
Lateral ventricle--> Third Ventricle --> Cerebral Aquaduct --> Fourth Ventricle --> Pia mater (subarachnoid space around brain) --> Superior Sagittal sinus (vein) through arachnoid villi
Blood brain barrier--which types of substances can pass?
Astrocytes filter which cells get to neurons from bloodstream (fat soluble materials pass easily).
What is located in Gray matter?
Concentrated neuron cell bodies
How many brain ventricles are there and what are the names?
Four: Two lateral ventricles, third, and fourth ventricle.
Superior Sagittal sinus--where is it located, and what is its function?
Large vein in Longitudinal fissure of the brain--carries away CSF, excess is absorbed with blood to prevent too much "water on brain" or conditions such as hydrocephalus.
What is the direction of flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain?
Lateral ventricle--> Third Ventricle --> Cerebral Aquaduct --> Fourth Ventricle --> Pia mater (subarachnoid space around brain) --> Superior Sagittal sinus (vein) through arachnoid villi
Blood brain barrier--which types of substances can pass?
Astrocytes filter which cells get to neurons from bloodstream (fat soluble materials pass easily).
What is located in Gray matter?
Concentrated cell bodies
How many brain ventricles are there and what are the names?
Four: Two lateral ventricles, third, and fourth ventricle.
Superior Sagittal sinus--where is it located, and what is its function?
Large vein in Longitudinal fissure of the brain--carries away CSF, excess is absorbed with blood to prevent too much "water on brain" or conditions such as hydrocephalus.
What is the direction of flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain?
Lateral ventricle--> Third Ventricle --> Cerebral Aquaduct --> Fourth Ventricle --> Pia mater (subarachnoid space around brain) --> Superior Sagittal sinus (vein) through arachnoid villi
Blood brain barrier--which types of substances can pass?
Astrocytes filter which cells get to neurons from bloodstream (fat soluble materials pass easily).
What is located in Gray matter?
Concentrated cell bodies of neurons
Is gray or white matter located more towards periphery of brain?
Gray
Cerebral cortex
Gray matter on periphery of cerebral hemisphere.
What is located in white matter?
Bundles of myelinated axons of neurons
What are tracts?
Made up of bundles of axons of neurons (connect parts of brain to one another--in CNS)
What are the three types of tracts?
Commissural, association, projection.
Would tracts be apart of white or gray matter?
White (has white color because they are myelinated)
What do commissural tracts connect?
Connects right and left sides of the brain.
What do Association tracts connect?
Connects two parts of brain on the same side.
What do Projection tracts connect?
Connects axons from high to low brain centers (Cerebrum to brain stem)
What is a nucleus in brain matter?
Gray area in the CNS where neuron cell bodies are found.
Ganglia
Area in PNS where neuron cell bodies are found.
Tract
Bundle of axons in CNS
Nerve
Bundle of axons in PNS
Gyrus
Folds on the brain
Sulci
Crevices on brain in between Gyri
What is the central sulcus?
Divides frontal and parietal lobes
What is the longitudinal fissure?
Located between right and left cerebral hemispheres.
Five lobes of brain:
Frontal, Two Parietal, Occipital, Temporal
What is the precentral gyrus?
Located in Frontal lobe in front of central sulcus--where motor impulses begin in brain (pyramidal cells)
What is the postcentral gyrus?
Area behind central sulcus and contains homunculus (where body parts are mapped out--allocated space for sensory info). Receives sensory info (where sensations are "felt."
Areas of Cortex:
Precentral gyrus, Postcentral gyrus, Broca's area, Wernicke's area
What happens at precentral gyrus?
Where sensory neurons begin
What happens at postcentral gyrus?
Where sensory neurons end.
Much of Parietal Lobe is called___ and integrates _____.
Association cortex/sensory input
What is Wernicke's area?
Found mostly in parietal lobe and is responsible for much of what we see and hear.
Occipital lobe responsible for what sense? Parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes?
Vision/ Olfactory cortex (smell)/ Auditory cortex/ Gustatory cortex (Taste)
Basal nuclei--what are the functions?
Gray matter areas located deep in cerebrum-- Basal nuceli gives feedback to neurons in precentral gyrus to modify muscle movement (sem-iautomatic-walking, muscle tone, etc.)
Diseases involving Basal nuclei?
Parkinson's disease (spastic, uncontrolled movements, tremors, etc.)
How would Parkinson's be treated?
Using appropriate doses of Dopamine.
On which side of the brain are speech and motor control more developed?
Left side
Which hemisphere of the brain is dominant in most people, and what does it control?
The left side, controls right hand use, speech, numerical/reasoning skills
What does right side of brain control?
Left hand control, music/artistic skills, insight, spatial relationships
Where is the Diencephalon of the brain located?
Deep inside brain superior to brain stem.
What are the three main parts of the diencephalon?
Hypothalamus, Thalamus, Epithalamus.
How many "nuclei" found in thalamus?
Over ten
What is the intermediate mass?
Gray matter in between two thalami (connects right to left thalamus).
What are the functions of the thalamus?
Where crude sensory (touch, pain, temperature) is interpreted,

Where sensory input to brain synapses,

Limbic system (memory, emotions),

Part plays role in motor function
What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
Temperature control
Osmotic pressure control
Thirst/Hunger
Autonomic nervous system
Control of pituitary gland
Sense of smell
Plays role in emotion & memory (mammillary bodies)
Feedback with pineal gland (day-night cycle)
Functions of Epithalamus:
Includes pineal gland--works with hypothalamus to determine day-night cycle, makes melatonin
What does the hypothalamus link together?
Autonomic nervous system with endocrine system and limbic system
Brain Stem
Connects Diencephalon with cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres.
Parts of brain stem:
Medulla oblongata, Pons, Mesencephalon,
What are sensory tracts?
(Ascending) Travel through medulla oblongata to thalamus and postcentral gyrus--also to cerebellum to give information about body position.
What is reticular formation?
Network of neurons located in all three parts of brainstem--filters sensory information going to cerebrum and motor impulses leaving brain.
Components of medulla oblongata:
Tracts and nuclei (reticular formation, cardiac center, breathing center, vasomotor center, swallowing center, cranial nerve nuclei)
Components of Pons of the brain stem:
Tracts (sensory and motor), Nuclei (reticular formation, breathing center, cranial nerve nuclei 5-8)
Components of Mesencephalon of brain stem:
Tracts (cerebral peduncles, sensory tracts), Nuclei (Corpora quadrigemina, substantia nigra, red nucleus, reticular activating center, cranial nerve nuclei III, IV)
Cerebral Peduncle
Ventral bulges where direct motor tracts run into spinal cord.
Corpora Quadrigemina
Superior/inferior colliculi--reflex center for vision/hearing.
Substantia nigra
Part of basal nuclei--responsible for subconscious motor movements, dopamine synthesis. (Parkinson's disease results from damage to this structure)
Red nucleus
Controls motor functions such as muscle tone.
Reticular Activating center:
Plays role in wakefulness and sleep.
What is Arbor Vitae?
Gray matter/White matter on out and inside of cerebellum, respectively (Shaped like tree--means "Tree of life.")
What connects Cerebellum to other parts of brain?
Cerebellar peduncles.
What parts of the brain is the Cerebellum connected to?
All parts of the brain by cerebellar peduncles.
Name the Cerebellar peduncles:
Superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles.
What is ataxia, and what part of brain does it arise from?
Lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movement--stems from dysfunctions in cerebellum.
Proprioception
Sense of one's orientation of limbs/body position in space.
What role does Cerebellum play in proprioception?
Keeps balance and equilibrium of body and enables this sense so that we do not need to consciously control certain body functions.
What is the limbic system?
Group of structures together (Cerebrum, Diencephalon) that play role in emotional behavior and motivation in brain.
What structures of limbic system (specifically) play part in emotions?
Amygdala, Cingulated gyrus, fornix, hippocampus
Amygdala
Structure apart of limbic system, responsible for fear and fight/flight response.
Cingulated gyrus
Structure apart of limbic system, involved in emotions.
Fornix
Fibers that link parts of the limbic system.
Hippocampus
Structure in limbic system, involved in memory.
Emotional behavior is related to what in limbic system?
Memory, autonomic nervous system, eating habits, hormones, and smell.
Mnemonic for 12 cranial nerves?
"oh, oh, oh, to touch and feel very good velvet, ah!"
If a nerve begins in CNS, will it be sensory or motor? If it ends in CNS?
Motor/Sensory
Common neurotransmitters in brain:
Norepinephrine, Serotonin
Serotonin/Norepinephrine
Neurotransmitter that plays role in sleep/Plays role in arousal.
Reticular formation
Include Reticular activating center (plays role in sleep & wakefulness), skeletal muscle control, autonomic functions, pain.
Twelve cranial nerves in order:
Olfactory, Optic, Oculomotor, Trochlear, Trigeminal, Abducens, Facial, Vestibulochoclear, Glossopharyngeal, Vagus, Accessory, Hypoglossal.
What is a stroke?
Loss of brain function due to lack of oxygen being supplied to brain.
Contusion
"Bruise" on brain tissues.
Concussion
Brain injury that causes brain to move back and forth quickly inside of skull--caused by blow, bump, jolt, etc. to head.
Two major arteries bringing oxygen to brain:
Cartoid and Vertebral arteries.
Why is increased intracranial pressure a concern?
Pressure has no where to go in cranium, so it accumulates around brain tissues, interfering with brain functions and possibly leading to fatality.
First cranial nerve--name & function:
Olfactory: Sense of smell to brain.
Second cranial nerve--name & function:
Optic: Vision from the retina
Optic nerve runs from the ____ to _____ of brain.
Retina to Thalamus
Third cranial nerve--name & function:
Oculomotor: Motor to four extrinsic muscles that move eye.
Fourth cranial nerve--name & function:
Trochlear: Motor to superior oblique muscle.
Fifth cranial nerve--Name & function:
Trigeminal

Sensory:Face sensation of touch/pain
Motor: Masseter muscle (chewing)
Cranial nerve V:
Trigeminal
Cranial nerve I:
Olfactory
Cranial nerve II:
Optic nerve
Sixth cranial nerve--Name & function:
Abducens: Motor to lateral muscle of eye.
Seventh Cranial nerve--Name & function:
Facial

Sensory: Taste
Motor: Lacrimal gland, salivary gland, skeletal facial muscles.
Eighth Cranial nerve--Name & function:
Vestibulocochlear: Sensory from internal ear for balance and hearing
Ninth Cranial nerve--Name & function:
Glossopharyngeal

Sensory: Taste
Motor: Salivary gland and muscles in pharynx (swallowing)
Tenth Cranial nerve--Name & function:
Vagus

Sensory: Taste
Motor: Salivary glands, swallowing, voice muscles, autonomic fibers to abdominal organs
Eleventh Cranial nerve--Name & function:
Accessory: Motor to sternocleidomastoid and Trapezius muscles.
Twelfth Cranial muscle--Name & function:
Hypoglossal: Motor to tongue muscles.
Which cranial nerve responsible for smiling?
Facial nerve (VII)
Which cranial nerve helps with balance?
Vestibulocochlear (VIII)
Which cranial nerve helps to bite down on food?
Trigeminal (V)
Which cranial nerve causes crying?
Facial (VII)
Which Cranial nerve would make heart beat more slowly or cause stomach to contract?
Vagus nerve (X)
Which cranial nerves do not begin or end in brainstem?
Olfactory (I) and Trochlear (IV)
Which cranial nerve allows eye movement?
Abducens (VI)
Which cranial nerve allows you to stick out your tongue?
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)