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9 Cards in this Set

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Outline how you would treat cows suffering from a uterine prolapse? What is the chance that it will reprolapse following subsequent calving? Would you recommend it be culled following treatment and recovery?
1. Tell the farmer to restrain her to prevent any further injury or uterine artery rupture. They should also have water on hand and can put wet towels over it to protect it.
2. if hypocalcaemic administer Ca before you start.
3. If she is recumbent pull her hind limbs out caudally to prevent straining.
4. Easier if she is facing down hill
5. Administer epidural if needed
6. If she is standing elevate the uterus up to the level of the vulva in a dish or bucket
7. You can put the uterus in a plastic bag for further protection and gently wash with mild antiseptic, saline or hypertonic soln to reduce oedema
8. Leave placenta attached if removal will traumatise the caruncular attachments
9. Repair any sig lacerations (inverting pattern eg simple continuous)
10. Check if the bladder has also prolapsed and evacuate if needed
11. Replace the uterus and ensure it is fully inverted
a. Care not to puncture the uterus with your fingers
b. Apply cranial pressure to the prolapse close to the vulva and work towards the apex
c. Once replaced the base of a wine bottle can be inserted to fully invert each horn or the uterus filled with water and then siphoned
12. Consider if you need a bruhner’s stitch
13. Administer oxytocin IM to induce uterine contraction
14. Early return to ambulation may help reduce risk of reprolapse

Risk of reprolapse is very low. Most appear fertile post treatment so I wold not recommend culling
Outline how you would treat cows suffering from a bladder prolapse or eversion and how would y ou differentiate?
• Usually takes place through rupture or tear in floor of vagina
• Epidural, clean, replace, suture laceration if possible
• Prolapse – ass w vaginal tear
• Eversion – ID openings of the ureters, smooth muscle layer, no vaginal tear
Outline how you would treat cows suffering from paralysis ass w calving? How would you clinically assess it? If it doesn’t stand following your examination what would you recommend?
• NSAIDS,
• treat any concurrent disease eg hypocalc, vag lacerations, metritis,
• try to encourage ambulation to avoid 2nd damage,
• place on non traumatic surface eg straw, pasture protected from the elements and where food and water is available,
• roll at least 4 times a day
• milking SID to prevent mastitis
• sling, flotation tank, physiotherapy, electrostim, acupuncture
Outline how you would treat cows suffering from sacroiliac subluxation
no treatment
Uterine infection
• organisms: archanobacterium pyogenes, fusobacterium necrophorum, prevotella melaninogenica
• at calving contamination with variety of organisms
• normally cleared by 4wks
• ↓DM intake + others = ↓ neutrophil function = predispose
• Poor hygiene at calving can also ↑ risk

Ab – MIC achieved w/in uterus, inactivated by debris, anaerobic, interfere w uterine defences, effective for comm bact, residues?
Intrauterine: Oxytet – maintains activity with debris and anaerobic envm, can cause inflammation and A. pyogenes can be resistant, risk of residues
Hormone: oxytocin w/in 24hrs
Outline how you would treat cows suffering from metritis
• < 14d post partum, all layers, systemic signs
• Biggest risk factor – RFM
• CS – 1st wk large atonic fluid filled uterus, fever, depression, ↓ milk, red-brown, watery, foul smelling vaginal discharge
• Treatment – Systemic ceftiofur or procaine penicillin 3-5d, NSAIDS, fluid therapy, Ca and energy sup if inappetant, avoid intrauterine manipulation (promotes endotox)
at least 2 of – RFM, T>39.5, dull or inappetant, foul smelling uterine discharge, atonic uterus
Outline how you would treat cows suffering from endometritis
• >3wks, endometrium and stratum spongiosum of submucosa, no systemic signs
• Risk factor - ↓Ca w recumbancy, RFM, dystocia, twins, metrits, ketosis, LDA
• Dx – evidence pussy discharge, vaginoscopy (manual exam w gloved hand or metricheck
• Treatment
IU ab – after 28d cephapirin, nil WHP

• Subclinical endometritis – cytological evidence of inflamm
Outline how you would treat cows suffering from a retained placenta? When is a placenta classified as retained?
• >12hr – normally 3-6hr
• Normal detachment – breakdown collagen before delivery, ↓ adhesiveness of cotyledon carunce interface, ↓ serotonin conc in late gest
• Retained – prepartum inhibition of cotyledon proteolysis and neutrophil fx, ischaemic retained placenta post birth -→ metabolically stressed placenta w release of inflammatory mediators and local immunosuppression, compounded by bacterial colonisation
• Risk factors – obstetrical intervention, twinning, abortion, short gest, summer, hormone imbalance, induction of calving, nutritional imbalance, older cows
• Treatment – aim early detachment to ↓ occurrence of metritis, ↓ milk yield and ↓ -ve impact on repro perf
o No practical therapy
You diagnose a cow with pyometra at a routine dairy herd preg test. The farmer would prefer not to cull the cow. What treatment would you recommend?
• Acc purulent exudate w/in uterus in presence of functional CL, usually no signs systemic, anoestrus, ↑P4 supress uterine defences
• Treatment – PGF2a to induce luteolysis and promote uterine drainage, follow up exam to ensure no recurrence, if persists – repeat PGF2a ± IU cephapirin