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93 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Why should only lens paper be used to clean the microscope?
The microscope lens scratch easy and the lens paper gently cleans it without damage
What is the function of the condenser?
It concentrates light in the plane of the object viewed
What is resolution?
The capacity of the microscope to seperate tiny, closely adjacent objects
Where should an adjustable condenser be set for a maximum resolution?
Turn the knob so that the top lens of the condenser us as close to the stage as it'll go, then back off no more than a millimeter
What is the function of the iris diagram?
It regulates the amount of light passing through an object
What happens to the light intesity as the magnification is increased?
It gets darker
What happens to the light intensity as the magnification is decreased?
It gets lighter
What happens to the actual amount of field vision when magnification is increased?
It is decreased
The greater the magnification the ____ the depth of field
How many layers of cells are there in an Elodea leaf?
How should a coverslip be applied to a drop of liquid on a microscope slide?
Dip one edge in the water drop, the slowly lower
When chloroplasts appear to be moving within a living cell, what is the cause of thir movement called?
Cyclosis or cytoplasmic streaming
In most living cells, such as those of the Elodea, where is the cytoplasm located? How extensive are plant cell vacuoles?
Cytoplasm is confined to the walla and may even extend across the vacuoles. (& in plasma membrane)
What cytoplasmic bridges?
Thin strands of cytoplasm
What parts of cells are normally visible with the aid of a compound microscope?
Cytoplasm, nuclei, vacuoles, chloroplasts
If present in a cell, where are anthocyanin pigments located?
Pink staining in cell vacuoles
How are amyloplasts distinguished from parenchyma cells in a potato?
Can use stain to distinguish, amloplasts are colorless after staining
What are striae, and where are they located in a spiderwort stamen hair cell?
Lines on the surface of each cell
How does chromoplasts differ from a chloroplast?
Chromoplasts are much smaller and red/orange in color
In what part of the cell are chloroplasts located?
Cytoplasm, the wall, across vacuoles, and in the plasma membrane
What is cyclosis?
The movement of chloroplasts and cytoplasm
What is a vacuole?
Flexible bag of watery fluid, a wetery sac
What is the thin boundary of the vacuole called?
Vacuolar membrane
Is the vacuolar membrane visible?
Where would you look for the nucleus in an Elodea cell?
Against the cell wall
Anthocynanin pigments and chromoplasts may both be red in color, how would you distinguish b/w the two if they were both present in the cell
Anthocyanin pigments are in the vacuoles
How can you tell a potato amyloplast from a cell?
Colorless w/ faint concentric lines formed by deposits of starch w/ in them
Specifically, where do starch grains develop?
In amyloplasts
Where would you expect to find the nucleolus?
W/ in the nucleus
With which specific region of the roots is this exercise concerned?
Region of maturation
In which tissues do the root hairs originate?
Epidermal cell
In which tissues do the lateral roots originate?
What evidence of the food-storage function of cortex is present in buttercup (Ranunculus) roots?
Extensive tissue w/ starch grains interior to the epidermis
Which tissue surrounds and borders the stele of a dicot root?
Which tissue comprise the stele?
Vascular tissue
What is the function of the vascular cambium?
Producing secondary xylem and phloem
What term is used to describe the bands of fatty substances that are found on the inner surfaces of the endodermal cell walls?
Suberin or casparian strips
Is a pith present in all roots?
What roots is a pith present in?
As lateral roots develop inside a primary root, through which tissues must they grow to reach the surface?
The endodermis (next to the pericycle from which its formed) and the cortec and epidermis
From which tissue do lateral roots arise?
B/w which tissues is the vascular cambium located?
primary xylem and primary phloem
Which tissues of stems are not present in dicot roots?
In which tissue are root hairs to be found?
Which tissue is immediately adjacent to the endodermis on the side toward the center?
In which region of the root does differntiation of cells into various cell types take place?
What is present in cells of the cortex the gives evidence of its function as a food-storage tissue?
Extensive tissue e/ starch grain
Of what fatty substance are Casparian strips composed?
What tissue produces cells that add to the girth (diameter) of the root?
Vascular cambium
What water-conducting tissue is present in the center of a dicot root?
Primary xylem
What protects the buds of dormant twigs?
Bud scales
What are bundle scars?
Small scar left by a vascular bundle w/ in a leaf scar when the leaf separates from its stem through abscission
Where are axillary buds located?
In the axil
What structures are associated with gas exchange are found throughout stem internodes?
What is the difference b/w bud scale scar and leaf scar
Bud scale-terminal buds leave these scars when they fall off in spring, used to tell age
Leaf scar-left on twig when leaf separates from it
Which tissue separates cortex from pith in an older alfalfa stem? What is the function of this tissue?
Vascular cambium, create secondary xylem and phloem
What is the primary function of the cortex and pith?
storing food and sometimes manufactoring it
Which tissue conducts water and minerals in solution?
Which two tissues are produced by the cork cambium
Cork and phelloderm
Which two tissues are produced by the vascular cambium?
Secondary xylem and phloem
In which tissues of the linden (basswood) stem are fiber cells conspicuous?
Of what kinds of cells is an snnual ring of xylem composed?
vessels and tracheids
What is the term applied to stem parenchyma tissue that is not separated into cortex and pith?
Fundamental tissue
What are the small bumps of parenchyma tissue on the surface of the internodes called?
How is a bundle scar formed?
When terminal buds fall off in spring
What is the function of the lenticel?
Gas exchange
Which of the stems in this exercise has the most complex phloem?
In addition to cork, what tissue is usually produced by the cork cambium?
How are the vascular bundles arranged in a monocot stem?
Scattered throughout the stem
Which of the stems featured in this lab is/are not dicot?
How does a compound leaf differ from a simple leaf?
Compound-divided into various leaflets
Simple-single blade
What fatty of waxy subtance present on the outer walls of leaf epidermal cells is pften lost in the preparation of slides?
When you view a cross section of a lead with the upper epidermis at the top, where is the phloem located in a vien?
Lower section
Which of the larger organelles are most abundant in palisade mesophyll cell?
What specific tissue marks the outer boundary of transfusion tissue in a pine leaf?
Which tissue lies b/w the epidermis and the endodermis in a pine leaf?
Where are the resin canals located in a pine leaf?
In the mesophyll
What is the function of resin canals?
Serve as tubular duct secreting resin
What are sunken stomata?
Stomata that are sunken or pushed into the epidermis
With which types of plants are sunken stomata associated with?
Desert plants and pines
What is the function of the hypodermis?
Gives support and rigidity to the pine leaf and some protection
Where is the hypodermis located?
Beneath the epidermis
Aprat from shape and size, how do guard cells differ from the epidermal cells that surround them?
Contain chloroplasts
What are stipules?
Pair of leaflike, scale-like, or thorn-like appendages
What is the fatty or waxy substance that coats a leaf epidermis called?
What tissue composed of thick-walled cells is found just beneath the epidermis of a pine?
In prepared slides of lilac leaves, why are some veins visible in cross sections while others are visible in longitudinal section?
B/c veins run in various directions and at various angles
Which tissue of pine leaves differs from that of lilac leaves in its not being divided into two distinguishable layers?
Of what two tissues are leaf viens primarily composed?
Xylem and phloem
Where are stomata generally most abundant in the majority of leaves?
Lower epidermis
Which layer of mesophyll is closest to the upper epidermis of a leaf?
In which kind of lead would you expect to find resin canals?
Pine leaves
The two cells that form and surround a stoma are known as what?
Guard cells