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84 Cards in this Set

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Difference between cellular slime molds and plasmodial slime molds?
Cellular slime mold spend most of their lives as single celled ameboid protists, but upon the release of a chemical signal, the single cells aggregate into a swarm. (Model for how single cells form a multicellular organism)
Plasmodial slime molds are enormous single cells with thousands of nuclei, formed when individual flagellated cell swarm together and fuse. (makes one large "bag of cytoplasm with many diploid nuclei)

***neither are actual "molds", but protists.
Slime molds that spend most of their lives as single celled ameboid protists, but upon the release of a chemical signal, the single cells aggregate into a swarm. (Model for how single cells form a multicellular organism)
cellular slime molds
Slime molds which are enormous single cells with thousands of nuclei, formed when individual flagellated cell swarm together and fuse. (makes one large "bag" of cytoplasm with many diploid nuclei)
Plasmodial slime molds
asexual, non-motile spores of a fungus generated through MITOSIS. The two new haploid cells are genetically identical to the haploid parent, and can develop into new organisms.
Conidia / conidiospores
Morels and cup fungi are examples of which type of fungi?

** the fungi in Gorgonzola too!
Ascomycota

Greek: "Sac fungi"
term that is now used only informally, to denote species of fungi that are asexually reproducing members of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.
Deuteromycota

Greek: "second/imperfect fungi"
Yeast, athletes foot and penicillin are examples of ______?
Deuteromycota

("imperfect fungi", reproduce asexually)
Zygosporangium (of zygomycota) are (haploid/diploid)?
diploid
Division of fungi having sexually produced zygospores?
Zygomycota
In MOLDS:
bottle shaped "stalk" that produces conidia/ conidiospores at its tip?
conidiophore
black bread mold is an example of what kind of fungus?
Zygomycota
common example of zygomycota?
black bread mold
Zygosmycota(black bread mold):
swollen tubes which support either a zygote or zygosporangium?
suspensors
In zygomycota:
a zygote formed by fusion of nuclei from respective gametangia (gamete vessel), then covered by a highly resilient and metabolically inert thick-wall.
zygosporangium
the stage before the zoosporangium is covered in the thick protective layer.
zygote
name for mushroom cap?
pilleus
The fruit producing structures within the paraphyses "Carpet" lining the gills of a basidiomycete (regular capped mushroom) .
basidia
what is the "carpet" lining the gills of a basidiomycete (regular capped mushrooms) or ascomycete (sac fungus)?
paraphyses
What are the fruit producing structures within the paraphyses of a ascomycete (sac fungus)?
asci

(singular: ascus)
shelf mushrooms/fomes have vertical pores or gills.

What fungi family do they belong to?
Basidiomycetes

(greek: pedestal fungi...the capped kind)
scales that make the "polka dots" on top of a mushroom are remnants of the _______ _____.
universal veil
what kind of fungus is a lichen?
Ascomycete

(cup fungi- Apothecium of
what part of a lichen contains the algal "partner'?
Phytocobiont layer of the upper cortex
in a lichen hyphae, the area between the upper and lowere cortex is the ________.
medulla
Discoid or cupped body bearing asci (fruit bearing structures of ascomycete) on the exposed flat or concave surface?
Apothecium
aka ascocarp
fruit bearing structures of ascomycete?
Asci
(produce ascospores)
Lichens produce fragments of mini lichens (clones). wht are these called?
soredia
probe-like cell that lichens use to penetrate am algal cell?
haustoria
name for the silica shells of diatoms?
frustules
where are PENNATE (bilaterally symmetrical) diatoms found?
freshwater
Where are CENTRIC (radially symmetric) diatoms found?
Marine
"petiole" of an algae?
stipe
"Anchor" of an algae
holdfast
what kind of algae are kelp?
large marine brown algae
The outerlayer of a morel is a HYMENIUM- it contains elongated sacs called asci which contain 8 _______.
Ascospores
the layer (sometimes carpet-like) of paraphyses in any fungus is called the ________.
hymenium
the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae.
mycelium
Having a single compartment in the ovary or fruit?
unilocular
Where do we see rows of unilocular (single ovary compartment) sporangia?
on the blade of kelps (brown algae)
what kind of spores are produced by the unilocular sporangia of kelp (brown algae)?
haploid (1n)spores are produced through meiosis.
extensions of the basidium, to which the basidiospores attach?
sterigmata
egg cells in the green algae are contained in the _____.
OOGONIUM

usually indicated by swelling, or a beehive-looking bud like structure.
the little dots on the chloroplasts of green algae are called _____.
pyrenoids
2 types of reproduction in green algae?
1) antheridia adjacent to oogonium--sperm enter through pore

2)sclariform conjugation--side to side forming conjugation tubes

3)terminal conjugation- occurs between 2 slides of the SAME filament
growth from within the filament, as opposed to apical or terminal which is at the end.
intercalary
when an egg is massive and round and and contained in an oogonium, this is called______.
oogamy
liverworts hornworts and mosses belong to which group?
bryophytes!

the first land plants
what is a thallus?
flattened tissue of a liverwort...lacks specialized tissue
what are the "flowering heads" of a liverwort?

What about the clonal "flower"?
antheridia and archegonia

clonal: Gemmae cup
unicellular "pegs' that attach a liverwort to the substrate
rhizoids
biggest difference between liverwort and moss antheridia and archegonia heads?
in liverworts the archegonia and and antehridia are sunk beneath the spash platform

in mosses, the archegonia and atheridia are atop the heads interspersed within paraphyses (which serve as a water substrate to allow the sperm to swim to the archegonium)
moss spore capsule: main characteristics?
columnella down middle, operculum (like a nose, distal to the PERISTOME TEETH)

teeth break apart spore mass to shake out spores like a salt shaker into the wind.
best way to distinguish xylem from phloem?
phloem are alive and have COMPANION CELLS

xylem are dead, thicker walled and larger
Both are multicellular, but which is dominant in bryophytes, the gametophyte or the sporophyte?
The gametophyte
Both are multicellular, but which is dominant in tracheophytes, the gametophyte or the sporophyte?
the sporophyte
what is the cross section of the monocot stem vascular system called?
atactostele
what is the cross section of the DICOT stem vascular system called?
eustele
cells specialized for support? (thick cell wall)
collenchyma
photosynthetic parenchyma?
chlorenchyma
parenchyma with prominent intracellular spaces for gas exchange?
Aerenchyma
cells with thick & rigid seconday cell walls, dead at maturity....function as skeletons
sclerenchyma: fibers and sclerids
very long thin sclerenchyma cells, sometimes hard, sometimes soft.
fibers
short and often cubic or polygonal sclerenchyma cells, as in a pears skin, or the hull of a peanut?
Sclereids
area between vascular tissue and dermal tissue?
cortex
regions of ground tissue between the vascular bundles?
pith rays
green algea- name.
chlorophyta
what is important about charophyta (green algae)?
closest relatives of the land plants
what is the vascular arrangement of a dicot's roots called?
a protostele

xylem make a "cross"
what is the vascular arrangement of a MONOCOT's roots called?
A SIPHONOSTELE

bundles form a circle
"mortar strip in endodermis made of suberin?
casparian strip
symplastic?
throught the symplast (through membrane)
apoplastic?
around the cell/upon the cell...refers to the direction of water
leaf cells- where are most chlorophylls found?
palisade parenchyma
what is below the palisade parenchyma with porous spaces?
spongy mesophyll
layer upon the epidermis of a leaf?
cuticle
the space just inside a stomata is called?
substomatal space
How do you tell the difference bewteen a cross section of a dicot or monocot leaf?
dicot has distinct top palisade parenchyma and bottom spongy mesophyll...
monocots are the same on top and bottom.
pits with lots of stomata in them?
stomatal crypts
what type of organism undergoes gametic meiosis?
animals, brown algae (kelp) (haploid gametes/zoospores)
what type of organism undergoes sporic meiosis?
plants (multicellular gametophyte and sporophytes)
what type of organism undergoes zygotic meiosis?
fungi, green algae

(fusion of cell nuclei end diploid stage and then mitosis occurs making more haploid cells)
brown algae is phylum _______.
Phaeophyta

(greek: dark plant)
mating hypha of a a zygomycota produce what?
gametangia
(which mate to produce a zygospore)
red algae are of the phylum ______.
rhodophyta

greek: rose or red plant