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51 Cards in this Set

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Photosynthetic organisms harness ________ to convert _____ and ____ into complex organic molecules.
Photosynthetic organisms harness <u>radient energy </u> to convert <u>CO2</u> and <u>H2O</u> into complex organic molecules
How are the complex molecules used?
a)energy source for cell metabolism
b) carbon skeleton intermediates
c)building blocks for production of complex organic molecules
d)components of metabolic pathways
e)maintain growth and development of plant
Photosynthesis releases ___, produces ___ and _____, and fixes ____ into carbohydrate.
O2, ATP NADPH, CO2
____Is the route to which nearly all energy is incorporated into the biosphere
Photosynthesis
3 different equations for photosynthesis
CO2+HOH->CH2O+O2
6CO2+6HOH--->C6H12O6+6O2
3CO2+6HOH--->C3H603+3O2+3HOH
What is the best equation for photosynthesis?
3CO2+6HOH--->C3H6O3+3O2+3HOH
What are the primary carbohydrates produced initially by photosynthesis?
triose sugars-PGA & PGAL
What is the other name for PGA?
Phosphoglycerate or phosphoglycericacid
What is the other name for PGAL?
Phosphoglyceraldehyde
A substance that absorbs light is known as a
Pigment
The area between ultraviolet and infrared waves in the electromagnetic spectrum?
visible spectrum
What length of waves does this span?
400nm-740nm
What is the continuous spectrum of radiant energy produced by the sun?
electromagnetic spectrum
What 2 characters does light have?
wave and particle
What is the relationship between wavelength and the energy contained by the light wave?
Shorter wavelength, more energy
What is the relationship between wavelength and the energy of the photon?
inversely proportional
What is the absorption spectrum of a substance?
light absorption pattern of a pigment
Chlorophyll absorbs light in the a)____,_____,and___wavelengths and reflects b)________
A)violet, blue, red
b)green and some yellow
When pigments absorb light, they are boosted to a higher energy state known as?
Excitation or excited state
After the electrons return to a lower energy they are in a state known as?
ground state
3 fates of energy from excited state of the electron
Energy converted to heat or heat and light:light produced of a longer wavelength (useless)
2)Energy transferred to neighboring pigment molecule (useful)
3)electron transferred to neighboring pigment molecule (useful)
When wavelength is longer than the original excitation wavelength, it is called
Fluorescence
When energy is transferred to a neighboring/adjacent pigment molecule
resonance energy transfer
or
inductive resonance
Photosynthetic eukaryotes and cyanobacteria, essential for O2 generating photosynthesis and blue-green w/methyl group
Chlorophyll A
accessory pigment. plants, green algae, and euglenoids. yellow-green, aldehyde group
Chlorophyll B
Takes place of Chlorophyll B in algae (Brown) and diatoms. NOT IN HIGHER PLANTS
Chlorophyll C
Not found in higher plants
Chlorophyll D & E
Photosynthetic bacteria contain what two types of other photosynthetic pigments?
bacterial chlorophyll
&
Chlorobium chlorophyll
uses HS as e- source rather than H2o and gives off S gas.
Chlorobium chlorophyll
2 types of carotenoids
carotenes
&
xanthophylls
how 2 types differ
carotenes-orange,red,sometimes purple-lack O2
xanthophylls-yellow pigment-have O2
Water soluble, red or blue, photosynthetic pigments found in some of the red algae and in many types of bacteria including cyanobacteria (not in plants!)
phycobilins
list Accessory pigments
Chlorophyll B
Chlorophyll C
carotenoids
and phycobilins
most important function of carotenoids
anti-oxidants and quenching agents
Plants cannot photosynthesize w/o the presence of these which stabilize chlorophyll
carotenoids
carotenoids are also important for:
coloration of flowers and fruits
attracting animals for pollenation and seed dispersal.
Type of accessory pigment not found in plants
phycobilins
Water soluble pigments: not considered to be photosynthetic
anthocyanins
and
betacyanins
pigments that are flavonoids
Anthocyanins
pigments that are aromatic nitrogenous compounds...
Betacyanins
A pair of 6-C aromatic rings linked to a 3rd by a 3-C chain. Each C ring has alcohol groups at various positions...this describes the structure of a :
anthocyanidin
anthocyanins and betacyanins usually stored in the
vacuole
Color of anthocyanins and betacyanins dependent upon
PH of sol'n in vacuole
The most important group of pigments in producing flower color in angiospers and important in shielding new growth and tender portions of the plant from ultraviolet radiation.
anthocyanins
2 stages of photosynthesis
Light dependent rxns
&
Light independent rxns
Products of light dependent rxns:
Oxygen gas
ATP
NADPH
The oxidation of water by sunlight
photolysis
Where does photolysis take place?
the Thylakoid Membrane
Electrons from water are transported to_____in the oxygen evolving complex
NADP+
Removal or loss of E- from a molecule w/ loss of H and acquiring of a + charge
Oxidation
Acceptance or gain of E- by a molecule w/ gain of H and acquiring of a (-) charge
Reduction