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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
why study organic compounds?
we use a lot of compounds secreted by plants: ie. sugar
molecule
two or more atoms bound together
compounds
molecules bonded together
chemical bonds
make molecules and compounds, number of bonds possible is determined by number of valence electrons
covalent bond
two atoms share electrons
polar bonds
electrons shared unequally
nonpolar
electrons shared equally
OH
CO
COOH
NH2
SH
PO4
hydroxyl
carbonyl
carboxyl
amino
sulfhydryl
phosphate
OH
Hydroxyl
/polar group
/water soluble
/called alcohols
/ie. ethanol
CO
Carbonyl
/carbon atom double bonded to oxygen
/water soluble
/in sugars
COOH
Carboxyl
/oxygen double bonded to carbon double bonded to hydroxide
/water soluble
/acidic properties
NH2
Amino
/polar
/water soluble
/weak base
SH
Sulfhydryl
/stabilizes proteins via disulfide bridges
/thiols
Characteristics of water
/solvent
/high surface tension (cohesion)
/solid, liquid, gas
/expands when freezes
facilitated diffusion
ie. ion channel
carbs
/most abundant organic cpd in nature
/sugar and starch with C,H,O ratio of 1:2:1
/ie. glucose
/
starch
/main carb reserve of plants (branched, unbranched, coiled)
/major carb source for animals
/potatoes, wheat, rice
/alpha 1,4 bonds between glucose
/(C6H10O5)n
cellulose
/ (C6H10O5)n
/3000 to 10000 unbranched, linear, main structural polymer, microfbrils
/Cotton almost all cellulose also found in plant cell walls
chitin
/fungal cell walls and insect exoskeltons
/polymers of nitrogenous glucose
lipids
/fatty or oily substances that are mostly insoluble in water
/Fats are solid at room temperature(compact, animals)
/Oil are liquid at room temperature(seeds, compact vs. starch)
/Typically store twice as much energy as carbohydrates(higher portion of carbon – hydrogen bonds)
/Most consist of chain with 16-18 carbon atoms
/Saturated- no double bonds
/Unsaturated- double bonds from carbon to carbon
Phospholipids
/constructed like fats but one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group
/phospholipid bilayer makes up cell membrane
IKI
stains starch
Breakdown of cellulose
acheived in animals by fungi and termites
The "Big 4" polymers
/carbs
/lipids
/proteins
/nucleic acids
Unsaturated
contains double bonds
trans-fat
trans rotation around C double bond
components of phospholipid
/nonpolar tail
/polar head
//amphiphatic molecule
//makes up bilayers
//forms mycelle in water
//selectively permeable
POTD: Aloe vera
simple leaf, tubular yellow flower, monocot, used for burns
steroids
4-C ring + lipid
cholesterol
/steroid
/makes membranes stiffer
/plants have sigmasterol
waxes
/lipids with long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols
/waterproof
/cuticle
/wards off fungus
/water-loss prevention
proteins
regulate chemical reactions in cells and are usually very large and consist of one or more polypeptide chains
polypeptide
/chains of amino acids
/Each amino acid has two functional groups:
//1. Amino group(NH2)
//2. Carboxyl group(COOH)
9 essential amino acids that humans cannot produce:
Lysine, tryptophan, thereonine, methiomine, histidine, phenylalanine, leucine, valine, and isoleucine.
/Beans and rice = good
protein structure
/Primary: aa seq
/Secondary: coiling
/Tertiary: interactions of R groups
/Quaternary: several polypeptides joined together
enzymes
/mostly large, complex proteins that function as organic catalysts under specific conditions.
/work by lowering energy of activation temporarily bonds w/ potentially reactive molecules at a surface site
cells discovered in...
1665 by robert hooke
cell theory
/developed in 1838, Schleiden and Schwann
/all organisms are composed of cells
/chemical rxns take place within cells
/contain hereditary
/cells arise from other cells
spontaneous generation
disproved by Virchow, 1858, and pasteur in 1862
patch-clamp experiment
uses a micro pipette attached to the cell membrane to allow recording from a single ion channel.
exocytosis
particles carried by golgi or vesicles out of cell (see fig 4-14 = mucus being released)
Pectin
released by fruit to soften it
root lube
secreted to help roots penetrate ground
phases of signal transduction
1. reception: signals are hormones or chemicals
2. transduction: secondary messengers
3. induction
endocytosis types
1.Reception- signals are usually hormones chemicals produced by one cell type or tissue in order to regulate function else where
2.transduction- secondary massengers produce a reaction
3.induction- activation of cellular processes
Plasmodesmata
/ER caught in the forming cell plate
/narrow strands of cytoplasm that interconnected the protoplasts of neighboring plant cells
/Efficient way to move small particles nutrients, sugars, between cells either in bulk flow or via diffusion
/size exclusion limits vary by region of cell
/viruses can us by coding for movement proteins
symplast
the continuum formed through plasmodesmata
apoplast
space outside protoplast
cytosol
fluid with in the cytoplasm containing organelles
middle lamella (intracellular space)
first produced when new cell walls are formed(mostly pectin)
secondary cell walls
derived from primary walls by thickening and inclusion of lignin