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22 Cards in this Set

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Differentiate between metabolic alk/acid and resp alk/acid
metabolic alk - pH >7.45, increased bicarb, increased PCO2

met acid - pH<7.35, decreased bicarb, decreased PCO2

resp alk - pH>7.45, decreased PCO2, decreased bicarb

resp acid - pH<7.35, increased PCO2, increased bicarb
What are the physiological hemoglobins?
embryo - Gower 1

fetus - HbF

adult - HbA, HbA2, HbA1c
describe the O2 binding curve
right shift - reduced binding O2 - increased protons (low pH), increased CO2, increased 2,3 DPG, increased temp

left shift - tighter binding of O2 - fetal hemoglobin, myoglobin
What decreases albumin?
malnutrition, liver failure, pregnancy
What are the order of organ perfusion during rest? exercise?
rest - kidney > brain, muscle > heart

exercise - muscle >> heart > brain > kidney
What keeps the ductus arteriosis open?
prostaglandins
What happens to K+ and H+ during plasma acidosis and alkalosis?
acid - H into the cell, K out of the cell

alk - H out of the cell, K into the cell
Describe the recovery of bicarb in prox tubule
H is secreted (in exchange for Na) and combines with tubular HCO3 forming H2CO3 which dissocites into H2O and CO2. CO2 diffuses into the cell and is split back into H for secretion and HCO3 which then is transported through the basolateral membrane into the peritubular space
What happens to GFR with afferent and efferent contraction?
afferent - decreases GFR

efferent - increases GFR
What are the receptors and mechanisms involved with osmoregulation? volume regulation?
osmo - hypothalamus - results in thirst, ADH release

volume reg - baroreceptors, macula densa - volume loss results in symp activation, renin release from JGA
when is renin released?
blood pressure at JG cells is low

NaCl delivery to macula densa is low
What are the 3 major cell types form the of the JG apparatus?
1) macula densa cells - measures NaCl
2) specialized smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole (=JG cells = granular cells)
3) mesangial cells
where are carbs absorbed? AA? iron? B12? bile salts?
carbs - duodenum, jejunum

AA - duodenum, jejunum

Fe - duodenum

B12 - terminal ileum

bile salts - terminal ileum
What are the major cells in the stomach and what do they secrete?
chief - pepsinogen - fundus and corpus

parietal - HCl, intrinsic factor - fundus and corpus

mucus - mucus - fundus and corups or antrum

G cells - gastrin - antrum
What does oxytocin do?
uterus contraction, breast milk release
differentiate Conn syndrome and Addison's
Conn - hyperalodosteronism - K depletion, HPTN, not edematous, not hypernatremic, weakness, tetany

Addisons - K retention, Na loss (HPoTN), H retention ( met acid), pigmentation
what hormones are released in the adrenal cortex? medulla?
cortex - minearlocorticoids (glomerulosa), glucocorticoids (fasciculata), androgenic steroids (reticularis)

medulla - NE, Epi
What are the roles of FSH and LH in the ovaries? Testes?
FSH:
ovaries - follicle maturation
testes - spermatogenesis

LH:
ovaries - triggers ovulation, luteinization of follicle
testes - testosterone secretion (Leydig cells)
By what month do most children get the ability to walk alone?
15 months
What are the major ideas of psychological development?
Freud - mental processes are the driving force motivating our behavior. Sexuality develops in stages, each stage focusing on a different body part.

Piaget - thinking process develops in sequential stages, each stage qualitatively different from the others

Erikson - ego develops in stages over the entire lifetime. Each stage is characterized by a struggle that must be resolved before progressing to the next one
What are the decrees of MR?
IQ 55-70 - mild

40-55 - moderate

25-40 - severe

<25 - profound
What does classical conditioning work on? operant?
C - works on reflexive behavior (ANS)

O - works on ANS or complex behavior