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### 15 Cards in this Set

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 3 criteria must be met in order to conclude that one variable causes or influences another variable: What are they? -Elimination of extraneous variable -Directionality Covariation What is Covariation? If one variable causes the other, then changes in the values of one variable should be associated with changes in values of the other variable. Directionality the presumed cause precedes the presumed effect in time. (However, in most Correlational research, both variables are measured at the same time) Elimination of extraneous variable All extraneous factors that might influence the relationship between the two variables are controlled or eliminated→two variables may be correlated not because they are causally related to one another but because they are both related to a third variable (ex: loneliness and depression are strongly correlated but is it because of the third variable>quality of a person’s social network) Partial Correlation the correlation between two variables with the influence of one or more other variable statistically removed ______ Correlation allows researchers to examine a third variable’s possible influence on the correlation between two other variables Partial equal differences between the numbers assigned to participants’ responses reflect equal differences between participants in the characteristic being measures. Interval and ratio scales most commonly used index of correlation…when bothe variables, x and y, are on a interval or ratio scale of measurement Pearson correlation coefficient used when one or both variables are measured on an ordinal scale Spearman rank-order correlation no true zero point Interval have a true zero point Ratio Ordinal scale the numbers reflect the rank ordering of participants on some attribute Ex: teachers rank vs. IQ when both variables being correlated are dichotomous Phi coefficient correlation: Dichotomous variable is measured on a nominal scale but only has two levels Ex: correlation between gender and virginity Dichotomous male vs. female, handedness, pass (y or n)