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191 Cards in this Set

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Systematics
The discipline within biology that is concerned with phylogeny reconstruction and classification
Phylogeny reconstruction
A diagram depicting the evolution of a taxonomic group
phylogeny
The evolutionary development and history of a species or higher taxonomic grouping of organisms.
Taxon
Any named species or group of species
Phylogenic Tree
A diagram depicting the evolution of a taxonomic group
Different from a cladogram
Clade
An ancestral species and all of its descendant species
How do we know which groups of Taxa are clades?
Shared Traits suggest common ancestry
They share traits because:
Trait evolves in a lineage
Trait persists in descendants
All taxa in clade should exhibit the trait
Last Common Ancestor
A species that split and gave rise to new species (the closest two species have together)
Ingroup
The taxa of interest in a phylogenic analysis
Outgroup
Taxon that is closely related to the ingroup
Symplesiomorphy
A trait that is found in the last common ancestor of some specified group of taxa and that is expected to be found in that ancestor’s descendants---shared ancestral trait
---Not informative about relationships in ingroup because all taxa in the group should have it (Homology)
Synapomorphy
A trait that has changed from the condition seen in the last common ancestor of a particular group and which is shared among some of that ancestor’s descendants—shared derived trait
----Only trait informative about relationships within the ingroup because only some taxa will share it (Homology)
Homology
Retained in descendants (trait evolves here)
Homoplasy
Are misleading about evolutionary relationships because the suggest incorrectly, that taxa are closely related
Convergent evolution=
Similar features evolve twice
(analogous)
Autapomorphy
A trait that has changed from the condition seen in the last common ancestor of a particular group and which is found in only one of that ancestor’s descendants
(Not informative about relationships because only one taxon has it) --unique trait
Phenetics
-Classifies species based on overall similarity not concerned with phylogeny. Earliest approach, but now uncommon
-Linnaeus’s classification was phenetic
-Grouping species by overall shape is a type of phenetics (like skull measurement)
-Uses all forms of traits and all phyletic groups
DNA-DNA Hybridization
DNA from two different species are denatured and combined together. It is a measure of the degree it takes to pull them apart, and then apart form each other
Cladistics
-Classifies species based on phylogeny only developed in the 1960s and now dominant
-Only monophyletic grouping is allowed, only synapomorphies traits used in comparison
Evolutionary Systematics
-generally classifies based on phylogeny also recognizes subjective “grades” of evolution common in the century after Darwin
-synapomorphies, symplesiomorphies, monophyletic, paraphyletic
Monophyletic
An ancestral species and ALL of it’s descendent (= a clade)
Paraphyletic
An ancestral species and SOME of it’s descendent species
Polyphyletic
Some species but NOT their last common ancestor
Homologous traits
syplesiomorphies, synampomorphies,
analogous traits
homoplasies,
unique traits
autapomorphies
Saggital
Equal haves from right to left of the body, symmetrical
Coronal
Cuts in half separates front and back
Transverse
Cuts the body in half parallel to the ground (like a magician)
Superior
Above, towards the head
Inferior
Below, towards the tail
Anterior
Towards the front
Posterior
Towards the back
Cranial
Towards the head
Caudal
Towards the tail
Dorsal
Back
Ventral
Front
Medial
Closer to midline
Lateral
Farther from midline
Proximal
Toward the origin (where it attaches) of a limb
Distal
Away from the origin of a limb
Cranium
Holds the brain and face
Sutures
Joints between bones
Saggital suture
Runs down middle between parietal
Coronal
Separates frontal and parietal bones
Cranial vault
Holds brain
Frontal
Protects front of brain
Supraorbital region
Above the eye, looks like an eyebrow
Parietal
Towards the middle of skull, one on each side, connected by sutures
Occipital
Towards the back of the skull, only one bone
Foramen magnum
At the base of the skull, hole for spinal cord
Nuchal Region
Rough region for attachment of neck muscles
Temporal
Most complicated, one on each side of skull
tempromandibular joint TMJ
Joint for mandible
external auditory meatus
-Includes all anatomy associated with hearing and the ear
-opening to middle ear
Mastoid process
Right behind earlobe, large bony knob, muscle attaches to turn head from side to side
Petrous temporal
Houses middle and inner ear
Petrosal Boulla
A primate synapomorphy
Surrounds the middle ear cavity, derived from petrous part of temporal bone
Sphenoid
Single unpaired bone through the center of the skull
Looks like wings when viewing from inside of skull
Maxilla
Paried bone that surrounds the opening of the inner nose (nasal aperature)
Houses upper teeth
Also holds hard palate
Zygomatic
Cheek bones, paired
Nasal
Right between the eyes above the nose, very fragile
Mandibular condyle
Bony knob that attaches to skull
Mandible
Separately movable bone of the jaw
Mandibular corpus
Long side parallel to ground
Mandibular ramus
Lateral part on side that contains the TMJ
Madibular symphysis
Chin in front
Incisors
In front
Canine
Dracula teeth
Premolars
A.k.a bicuspids
Molars
Main grinding teeth
Dental Formula
2123/2123 (incisors, canines, premolars, molars)
Shows number of teeth in each category maxillary/mandibular
Temporalis
Attached to side of cranial vault
Muscles of mastication
Masseter
From zygomatic to the bottom of the jaw (gonial region)
Muscles of mastication
Convergent Evolution
A type of analogous trait called a homoplasy
which Are misleading about evolutionary relationships because the suggest incorrectly, that taxa are closely related.
Similar features evolve twice
classifications
groups of animals based on simlar Characteristics and phylogeny
Mastoid process
Right behind earlobe, large bony knob, muscle attaches to turn head from side to side
Petrous temporal
Houses middle and inner ear
nasal aperature
-the opening on the skull bounded by the nasal and incisive bones
-the anterior end of the bony nasal opening, connecting the external nose with the skull
alveolus
one of the cavities or sockets of the jaw, in which the roots of the teeth are embedded
medial pterygoid
A muscle with origin from the pterygoid fossa of the sphenoid bone and the tuberosity of the maxilla, with insertion into the medial surface of the mandible, with nerve supply from the medial pterygoid branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, and whose action raises the mandible and closes the jaw. (in picture looks like it connects inside jaw to sides of nose)
temporal lines
origin of the temporalis muscle
zygomatic arch
origin of masseter muscle
gonial region
insertion of masseter muscle
coronoid process
insertion of the temporalis muscle
sagittal crest
in primates who have very stong temporalis muslces the origin of the muslce is actually on top of the head and is so strong it pushes the plates together so in time the have evolved to have a bony crest on top of the skull for muslce attachment
axial skeleton
vertebrae, sternum, ribs
upper limb (forelimb)
Scapula, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, wrist, hand
lowerlimb (hindlimb)
pelvis, femur, tibia, fibula, ankle, foot
Where living primates live
Primarily equatorial
Central America, Southeast Asia, Japan, North Africa Coast, South Africa, Madagascar, South America
Diet
Many Varieties
Some are specialists on leaves (but most find these difficult to process) (used by mostly large bodied animals)
Most like fruit
Insects
Bamboo
Tree-sap
Some like baboons can be carnivorous and kill other vertebrates
Most spend a large part of their day finding and consuming food
Frugivory (frugivore)
Fruit and seeds
Fruit Proportions
Seasonal availability
High energy content
Low nutrient content
Easy to process
Can’t live on fruit alone (must supplement with insects or leaves)
Frugivore body size and specialization
medium sized with large canines
Folivory (folivore)
Includes young and mature leaves, and flower blossoms
Leaves Proportions
High in availability
Medium energy content
Medium nutrient content
Hard to process (made of cellulose)
Leaf-eater body size and teeth specialization
Large
Because leaves take time and space to digest
Small incisors for folivores
Folivores long crests on molars, good for shearing cellulose
Fruit-eater digestive system
short simple
leaf-eater digestive system
long complex
Insectivory (Insectivore)
Includes crunchy adult insects and soft larvae and pupae
Insect food proportions
Low availability
High energy content
High nutrient content
Medium to process (variable)
Insect-eater body size and teeth specilization
small bodied
large incisors and canines
long crests on molars, Good for shearing chitin
Insect-eater digestive system
short simple gut
cellulose
in leaves, hard to digest
chitin
exoskeleton of insects
required much force to pierce
Kay's Threshold
There are no insectivores larger than 500 grams
Locomotion
None of them dig in the ground and none are primarily aquatic
Some have webbing under the arms but none of them fly
Quadruped (four-legged) on the ground, or quadruped in trees
Swing through trees by use of arms (very few species actually do this)
Some jump a lot from tree to tree
Chimpanzees are knuckle-walkers
Quadrupeds
Ribcage is narrow from side to side
Forelimb and hindlimb are similar in length
Two type
Arboreal and Terrestrial
Arboreal
Quadrupeds
Shorter limbs for balance
Powerful grasping hands and feet for holding on
Large tail for balance
Terrestrial
Quadrupeds
Long limbs for long steps
Short, strong digits
Stronger, less flexible joints
Knucklewalking
exhibted in apes like chimpanzees, leaning over and placing pressure on the middle phlange
Habitats
Wide Range of Habitats
Not as common in areas with strong seasonality (America, Canada)
Some live in tropical rainforest and trees
Woodlands
Grasslands
Places with snow
Nocturnal and Diurnal
Leaping
Hindlimbs are longer in primates that leap
Vertical clingers and leapers
Very long hindlimbs
Long spines
Powerful grasping hands and feet
Suspensory
Very long forelimbs
Very long and curved hand bones-phalanges
Ribcage is wide from side to side
Very mobile arm joints (shoulder, elbow, and wrist)
Bridging
and body size
Large primates can bridge many gaps-must leap less often
Leaping
and body size
Small primates encounter more gaps that they can’t reach across- must leap more often
Balance
and body size
Small primates balance more easily on top of branches-tend to be arboreal quadrupeds
Large primates find balancing on top of branches more difficult-are more commonly suspensory
Falling
and body size
Small animals are less likely to be injured if they fall, and therefore are more likely to leap
Most large primates realize the consequences of falling if you are large, and don’t leap or even climb that much
Predators
and body size
Terrestrial primates encounter more predators, and tend to be larger
Arboreal primates encounter fewer predators, and tend to be smaller
Ancestral Mammalian Traits
Post orbital bar
Five digits
Claws
Divergent orbits
Small brain
Strepsirhini
Large snout
Tapetum lucidum
Multiple nipples
Biocornuate uterus
Unfused mandibular symphysis
Derived Primate Traits
Grasping Extremities
Divergent Hallux
Nail on Hallux
Convergent Orbits
Eyes face the front
Postorbital Bar
Reduced Snout
Larger Brain
Petrosal Bulla
Derived Strepsirhine Traits
Tooth comb
Derived Haplorhine Traits
Loss of Tapetum Lucidum
Haplorhini
Petrosal Bulla
Middles ear has three ear bones, Petrosal Bulla-middle ear chamber of air surrounded by bones; the bulla is the bottom thin area of bone of the chamber. To help sound travel through the fluid filled chamber. Grows out of petrius part of the temporal bone (which is a composite of bones that have become fused together)
Tapetum lucidum
bright layer within the eye
Strepsirhini
wet nose, split upper lip
Derived Anthropoid Traits
Fused Mandibular Symphysis
Unicornuate Uterus
Single Pair of Nipples
Postorbital Closure
Postorbital Closure
Postorbital bar has area that fuses with the skull. No hole between the bar and the skull
Derived Platyrrhine Traits
Laterally facing nostrils
(Facing sideways)
Derived Catarrhine Traits
Downward Facing Nostrils
Two Premolars
Ischial Callosities
Ischial Callosities
(ex. on baboons)
Callus on butt. But the pelvis is extended in catarrhines too
Derived Cercopithecoid Traits
Bilophodont Molars
(Two-crested tooth)
Derived Hominoid Traits
Larger Brain
Loss of Tail
Long Arms
Broad Thorax
Divergent Hallux
grasping thumb, pulled away from other digits ?
Diurnal
active in day time
nocturnal
active a night time
Primate Characteristics
Grasping Hands and Feet
All have a nail on their big toe (hallux) rather than a claw. Most have nails on all of their toes.
Many have opposable thumbs actually
Enhanced Vision
Postorbital bar
Reduced Sense of Smell (Olfaction)
Smaller, less complicated nasal cavities than other mammals
Increased Brain Development
Prosimian/Anthropoid vs. Strepsirhine/Haplorhine
Two schools of classification that can divide the taxa differently
Evolutionary Systematic Classification
Traditional division was Prosimian/Anthropoid
Cladistic Classification
More recent methods use Strepsirhine/Haplorhine
Used by Clade
The only difference is where you place the Tarsius,
Strepshirrhines
Lemuroid, and lorisids
Lemuroid
Restricted to Island of Madagascar
14 Genera in 5 Groups
Body Size Range 1oz-15lbs
Most are diurnal, but some are nocturnal
arboreal and terrestrial quadrupeds, vertical clingers and leapers
Eat fruit, flowers, gums, and leaves
Example:
Aye-Aye
Lorisoid
Live in Africa and Asia
All nocturnal
Body Range 2oz-3.5lbs
Arboreal Quadrupeds and Slow Climbers
Fruit, Gums, and Insects
9 Genera in 2 Major Groups
Tarsius
Has combination of primitive and derived features
Live in Southeast Asia
Body Range 3.5 oz
All Nocturnal-but have problems seeing at night, so they have HUGE eyes that are bigger than their brain
Nose is more common to humans, fused upper lip, not wet and external
Vertical Clingers and Leapers
Insects
One Genus
Haplorhines
Platyrrhines-New World Monekys
Catarrhines
Platyrrhines-New World
Monekys
South and Central America
Amazonian drainage basin primarily
Body Range Size 3.5oz-22lbs
All Diurnal except for owl monkey
All Arboreal- quadrupeds, suspensions, leaping (only 5 genera have prehensile tail)
Fruit, Leaves, Insects, Seeds, Gums
Catarrhines
Cercopithecoids-“Old Word Monkeys”
Hominoids-“Apes and Humans”
Cercopithecoids-“Old Word Monkeys”
Most abundant primate group
Africa and Asia
2.5lbs-70lbs
All Diurnal
Most arboreal, but some terrestrial-quadrupeds
Fruit, leaves, seeds, invertebrates, vertebrates
22 Genera in Two Major Groups
Cercopithecines “cheek- pouch monkeys”
Colobines “Leaf Monkeys”
Hominoids-“Apes and Humans”
Chimpanzees and Gorilla-Africa
Orangutans and Gibbons-Southeast Asia
13 lbs-385 lbs
diurnal
suspension, knuckle-walking, bipedalism
fruit, leaves, insects, meat, seeds, etc.
5 Genera
Hylobates
Pongo
Gorilla
Pan
Homo
Hylobates
Gibbons
genera
Pongo
Orangutans
genera
Gorilla
gorillas (the genera has the same name)
Pan
Common chimapanzees
Bonobo
genera
Homo
humans
genera
Arboreal Theory
Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark
Believed the specialization of primate characteristics came about for life in trees
This hypothesis must be tested: by the
Comparative Method
Comparative Method
Used to test hypotheses about adaptation. Looks for repeated associations
Ex. Prehensile tail have evolved many times, always in species that live near branching plant.
Visual Predation Theory
Matt Cartmill
Questioned arboreal theory because other animals are specialized for climbing in trees but are not primates. Ex. squirrels
Believed primates are adapted to catching insects while in the trees
Social Behavior
Some are misogamist
Some prefer to be alone
Some live larger communities
Archonta
Closest extant taxa to primates
1. Primates
2.Tree Shrews
3.Colugos
4.Bats
Earth Formed
4.5 billion years ago,
first evidence of life
3.8 billion years ago,
Cambrian Explosion
Organisims, after billions of years, finally had hard body parts and began showing up in the fossil record, followed by rapid diversification
Permian Extinction
Extinction 250mya, at the end of the Paleozoic Era. Possibly caused by massive volcanic eruption in Siberia, that warmed the global environment, possibly warmed the oceans and released frozen methane from the bottom of the ocean massively reducing oxygen from 30% to 10%.
KT Boundary
65mya last major extinction (dinosaurs)
Cenozoic Epock
Epochs of the Cenozoic
Paleocene
Eocne
Oligocene
Miocene
Pliocene
Pleistocene
holocene
Paleocene
Little Fossil Record
65-45mya
no clear primate fossils
strepsirhine/haplorhine split likely occured
Eocene
Early Strepsirhines and Haplorhines
54-34mya
Earliest known primate fossils
Likely ancestors of strepsirhine and haplorhine
Adapid & Omomyids
Platyrrhine/Catarrhine Split
Omomyids
North America, Europe, and Asia
look like Tarsier
Adapids
look more like Lemurs and Lorises
North America, Europe, and Asia
Miocene
-Ape Diversity and the First Hominids
23-5.5mya
cercopithecoid/hominoid split
Pliocene
5.5-1.8mya
Pleistocene
1.8-.01mya
Holocene
12Kya-Today
Fayum Depression
Fayum Depression in Egypt, has lots of primate evidence
River Delta Environment
Most of the work has been spearheaded by Elyum Simons
Oligocene-
Monkeys Galore
34-23mya
Africa, Asia, South America
Fayum Depression
Platyrrhines (New World Monkeys
Platyrrhines (New World Monkeys
Probably originated in Africa
Migrated to south America
Quickly evolved many lineages
Homerange
Area they occupy, and places they might go
Territory
Defended area within a homerange, exhibited by some primates but not all
Monogamy
One adult female and one adult male
Ex. Titi monkey
Noyau
Males and females solitary but in overlapping ranges
Ex. orangutan
Polyandry
One adult female and multiple adult males (rare)
Ex. Saddleback Tamarin
Polygyny
One adult male and multiple adult female
Ex. Gorilla
Multi-Male/Multi-Female
Multiple adults females and males
Ex. Baboons
Fission-Fusion
Multiple males and female in a group, but with frequent changing of group composition
Ex. Chimpanzee (this is what we do too)
Reasons for Living in a Group
Predator Defense Model
Resource Defense model
Mate Acquisition
Predator Defense Model
Advantages:
“selfish herd” effect -odds go down that you will be the one picked by a predator)
alarm calls
mobbing
Disadvantages:
Predator attraction
Resource Defense model
Advantages:
Access to resource defended by other groups
Disadvantages:
Must share resources with your group members
Mate Acquisition
Advantages:
Greater access to potential mates
Disadvantages:
Leads to competition over mates
Resource Distribution
Many small patches
Small group size
Small homerange
Resource Distribution
Few Large patches
Large group size
Large homerange
Gregariousness
instinctively or temperamentally seeking and enjoying the company of others