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133 Cards in this Set

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FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

1.SUPPORTS--PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK
2.PROTECTS--INTERNAL ORGANS
3.HELPS MAKE MOVEMENT POSSIBLE
4.STORES CALCIUM
5.BLOOD CELL FORMATION
.
TYPES OF BONES
1. LONG BONE--UPPER ARM AND LEG
2. SHORT BONE--WRIST AND HAND
3. FLAT BONE--SKULL AND RIBS
4. IRREGULAR BONE--VERTABRAE AND KNEECAP
.
DIAPHYSIS

SHAFT OF THE LONG BONE
,
EPIPHYSIS


END OF THE LONG BONE
.
MEDULLARY CAVITY


HOLLOWED AREA IN THE DIAPHYSIS
,
YELLOW BONE MARROW


BLOOD CELL PRODUCING TISSUE IN EPIPHYSES, ALSO FOUND IN FLAT BONE
.
PERIOSTEUM


CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANE THAT COVERS DIAPHYSIS
.
ENDOSTEUM


CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANE THAT LINES MEDULLARY CAVITY
.
ARTICULAR CARTILAGE


THIN LAYER OF CARTILAGE THAT COVERS THE EPIPHYSES
.
MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE COMPACT BONE--(HARD, DENSE BONE)

1. FOUND ON OUTER PART OF EPIPHYSES AND THE BULK OF THE DIAPHYSIS

2. COMPOSED OF MANY LAYERS OF CALCIFIED MATRIX WITH HAVERSIAN OR CENTRAL CANALS THAT SERVE AS PASSAGEWAYS FOR BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES
,
MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE COMPACT BONE--

1. FOUND ON OUTER PART OF EPIPHYSES AND THE BULK OF THE DIAPHYSIS

2. COMPOSED OF MANY LAYERS OF CALCIFIED MATRIX WITH HAVERSIAN OR CENTRAL CANALS THAT SERVE AS PASSAGEWAYS FOR BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES
,
MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE SPONGY BONE--(POUROUS, HAS MANY SPACES)


1. FOUND INSIDE THE EPIPHYSES
2. FILLED WITH RED BONE MARROW
.
OSSIFICATION

BONE FORMATION AND GROWTH

SKELETON OF A FETUS IS LARGELY CARTILAGE (LACKS CALCIUM IN MATRIX)

THE PROCESS OF DEPOSITING CALCIUM IN BETWEEN THE CELLS BEGINS AROUND THE 2ND OR 3RD MONTH OF DEVELOPMENT AND CONTINUOUS THROUGH LIFE
.
OSTEOBLASTS (BONE BUILDER)


ARE IMMATURE BONE CELLS THAT PRODUCE MATRIX AND SECRETE IT AROUND THEMSELVES
.
OSTEOCLASTS

BREAKDOWN BONE, THEY HOLLOW OUT THE MEDULLARY CAVITY WIDER AND LONGER AS THE OSTEOBLASTS ADD LAYER OF BONE

**DURING PUBERTY TO YOUNG ADULTHOOD, BONE SIZE IS COMPLETE BUT BONE FORMATION AND GROWTH CONTINUES AS BONES ARE BEING REMODELED
.
WHEN AND IF BONE REMODELING OCCURS DEPENDS ON THE CALCIUM LEVEL OF THE BLOOD

HIGH--OSTEOBLASTS BUILD MORE BONE

LOW--OSTEOCLASTS ARE STIMULATED TO BREAKDOWN BONE MATRIX AND RELEASE CALCIUM IN THE BLOOD
.
WHERE BONE REMODELING OCCURS DEPENDS ON THE STRESSES OF MUSCLE PULL AND GRAVITY

IN AREA OF GREATEST STRESS, THE BONES BECOME THICKER AND FORM LARGER PROJECTIONS WHERE MUSCLE ATTACH. OSTEOBLASTS LAY DOWN MORE LAYERS OF BONE MATRIX
.
DIVISIONS OF THE SKELETON

1. AXIAL SKELETON
INCLUDE HEAD AND TRUNK

2. APPENDICULAR SKELETON
INCLUDE BONES OF THE EXTREMITIES
,
CRANIAL BONE

FRONTAL--FOREHEAD
.
CRANIAL BONE

PARIETAL--TOP AND UPPER LATERAL HEAD
/
CRANIAL BONE

TEMPORAL--"EAR" AREA--LOWER LATERAL HEAD
.
CRANIAL BONE

OCCIPITAL--BACK OF HEAD
.
CRANIAL BONE

SPHENOID--BAR WING SHAPED BONE THAT LIES BEHIND THE EYE ORBITALS FROM ONE TEMPORAL BONE TO THE OTHER FORMING A PART OF THE BASE OF THE SKULL
.
CRANIAL BONE

ETHMOID--BETWEEN THE EYE IN THE ORBITALS FORMS A PART OF THE BASE OF THE SKULL
.
FACIAL BONES

NASAL BONES--2 SMALL BONES THAT FORM THE BRIDGE OF THE NOSE
.
FACIAL BONES

LACRIMAL BONES--2 SMALL BONES (SIZE OF A FINGERNAIL) LIE NEAR INSIDE CORNER OF EYE ORBITAL
.
FACIAL BONES

MAXILLA--UPPER JAW--ONLY MOVEABLE BONE OF THE SKULL
,
FACIAL BONES

ZYGOMATIC OR ZGOMA--CHEEK BONES
.
FACIAL BONES

VOMER--SHAPED LIKE THE BLADE ON A PLOW AND FORMS THE LOWER PART OF THENASAL SEPTUM (DIVIDING WALL ON THE NOSE)
.
FACIAL BONES

PALANTINE BONES--2 BONES THAT MAKE UP THE BACK PART OF THE HARD PALATE
.
FACIAL BONES

OSSICLES--3 TINY BONES IN EACH EAR
,
FACIAL BONES

HYOID--"U" SHAPED BONE JUST BELOW THE SKULL--ATTACHES TO THE TONGUE
/
SPINAL COLUMN

ATLAS C1-(YES)
AXIS C2 (NO)
CERVICAL C1-C7
THORACIC T1-T12
LUMBAR L1-L5
,
PARTS OF THE VERTEBRAE

1.BODY--BLOCK-LIKE THE PART THAT STACKS
2.FORAMEN--HOLE IN CENTER
3.TRANSVERSE PROCESS0--LATERAL PROJECTIONS
4.SPINOUS PROCESS--POSTERIOR PROJECTION
5.INTERVERTEBRAL DISKS--PIECES OF CARTILAGE BETWEEN THE VERTEBRAE
.
TRUE -VS- FALSE RIBS (12 PAIRS OF RIBS EVERY RIB HOOKS ONTO 12 THORACIC VERTEBRAE
1. TRUE RIBS--(7 PAIRS) HAVE CARTILAGE THAT DIRECTLY ATTACHES TO THE STERNUM
2. FLASE RIBS (5 PAIRS) HAVE CARTILAGE THAT ATTACHES TO CARTILAGE ABOVE IT INDIRECTLY TO THE STERNUM OR NOT ATTACHMENT TO THE STERNUM AT ALL
3. THE 2 PAIRS OF FALSE RIBS THAT HAVE NO ATTACHMENT TO THE STERNUM ARE SOMETIMES CALLED "FLOATING RIBS"
.
SHOULDER GIRDLE--

SCAPULA AND CLAVICLE

ARM ATTACHES TO THE BODY HERE
,
PELVIC GIRDLE--

2 HIP BONES (OS COXAE)

SACRUM & COCCYX
.
HIP BONE (OS COXIS)

3 PARTS
1. ILIUM--UPPER FLARED PORTION
2. ISCHIUM--LOWEST PART-WHAT YOU SIT ON
3. PUBIS-ANTERIOR PORTION (2 PUBES JOIN TOGETHER WITH CARTILAGE CALLED SYMPHIS PUBIS
4. SACROILIAC-JOIN WHERE SACRUM & ILIUM JOIN
.
MALE PELVIS

1. MALE HIP BONES ARE LARGER
2. FORM A NARROW STRUCTURE
3. MALE PELVIS SHAPED LIKE A FUNNEL
.
FEMALE PELVIS

1. FEMALE PELVIS HAS A BROADER, SHALLOW SHAPED LIKE A BASIN
2. FEMALE PELVIC INLET AND OUTLET IS WIDER
3. PUBIC ARCH OF FEMAL PELVIS IS WIDER
.
JOINTS (ARTICULATIONS)

1. DEFININTION--WHERE 2 OR MORE BONES CONNECT

2. FUNCTIONS--

(A)HOLD BONES TOGETHER SECURELY
(B)ALLOW MOVEMENT BETWEEN BONES
.
KINDS OF JOINTS--

SYNARTHROSE--NO MOVEMENT

1. FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE HOLDS THE BONE TOGETHER
(EXAMPLE--SUTURES OF THE SKULL)
.
KINDS OF JOINTS--

AMPHIATHROSES--SLIGHT MOVEMENT BETWEEN THE BONES

1. CARTILAGE CONNECTS THE BONE
(EXAMPLE--SYMPHPHYSIS PUBIS, VERTABRAL COLUMN, RIBS)
.
KINDS OF JOINTS--

DIATHROSIS--FREELY MOVEABLE
.
PARTS OF A DIARTHROTIC JOINT

JOINT CAPSULE--

FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT ATTACHES FIRMLY TO THE SHAFT OF THE BONES, HOLDS BONES TOGETHER BUT ALLOWS MOVEMENT
.
PART OF A DIARTHROTIC JOINT

JOINT CAVITY--

AREA BETWEEN 2 BONES
.
PARTS OF A DIARTHROTIC JOINT

ARTICULAR CARTILAGE--

A THIN LAYER OF CARTILAGE OVER THE BONE THAT ABSORBS SHOCK AND PROVIDES A SMOOTH SURFACE FOR BONES TO MOVE
.
PARTS OF A DIARTHROTIC JOINT

SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE AND FLUID--

CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANE LINES THE JOINT CAPSULE AND SECRETES SYNOVIAL FLUID (LUBRICATES AND ALLOWS EASIER MOVEMENT
.
PARTS OF A DIARTHROTIC JOINT

LIGAMENT--

BANDS OF FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT LASH THE BONES TOGETHER EVEN MORE FIRMLY
.
TYPES OF DIAROTHESIS

1. BALL AND SOCKET--SHOULDER AND HIP
2. HINGE--ELBOW AND KNEE
3. PIVOT--AXIS AND ATLAS
4. SADDLE--THUMB
5. CONDYLOID--RADIUS AND CARPAL (WRIST)
.
FLEXION


DECREASING THE ANGLE BETWEEN 2 BONES (BENDING)
,
EXTENSION


INCREASING THE ANGLE BETWEEN 2 BONES (STRAIGHTENING)
.
ABDUCTION--

MOVE AWAY FROM THE MIDLINE
,
ADDUCTION--

MOVE TOWARD THE MIDLINE
,
ROTATION


MOVE AROUND AN AXIS
.
SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE

1. VISCERAL
2. INVOLUNTARY
3. FOUND IN ORGANS (VISCERAL)
4. SMOOTH IN APPEARANCE
5. WE HAVE NO CONTROL OVER THEM
.
STRIATED MUSCLE TISSUE

1. SKELETAL
2. VOLUNTARY
3. STRIPED IN APPEARANCE
4. ATTACHED TO SKELETON
5. WE HAVE CONTROL OVER THEM
,
CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE

1. STRIPED
2. NO CONTROL OVER THEM
3. FOUND ONLY IN THE HEART
,
MUSCLE CELL = MUSCLE FIBER

MUSCLE FIBERS = SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE

THE SKELETAL MUSCLES MAKE UP THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
.
MOST SKELETAL MUSCLES ATTACH TO ONE BONE, EXTEND ACROSS A JOINT AND ATTACH TO ANOTHER BONE
,
ONE OF THE BONES REMAINS STATIONARY AND IT IS CALLED

THE ORIGIN
,
THE OTHER BONE THAT MOVES IS CALLED

THE INSERTION
.
THE INSERTION

MOVES TOWARD

THE ORIGIN
.
TENDONS

ARE FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT ATTACH MUSCLES TO BONES
,
BURSAE

ARE SMALL FLUID-FILLED SACS THAT LIE BETWEEN SOME TENDONS AND THE BONES BENEATH THEM AND ALLOW THE TENDON TO SLIDE OVER THE BONE WHEN THE MUSCLE CONTRACTS
,
TENDON SHEATHS

ARE TUBE-SHAPED STRUCTURES THAT ENCLOSE SOME TENDONS LINED WITH SYNOVIAL MEMBRANES MOISTEN THE TENDON WITH SYNOVIAL FLUID
.
MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE

MUSCLE > MUSCLE TISSUE > MUSCLE FIBERS > MYOFIBRILS > MYOFILAMENTS > ACTIN & MYOSIN
.
OBICULARIS OCULI

CLOSES EYE, (WINK, SQUINT)
.
OBICULARIS ORIS

CLOSES MOUTH (PUCKER)
.
BUCCINATOR

PUFF UP CHEEKS AND BLOW OR WHISTLE
/
MASSETER

CLOSES JAW FOR CHEWING
.
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID

ROTATES AND FLEXES HEAD AND NECK
.
TRAPEZIUS


EXTEND HEAD AND NECK, ADDUCT SCAPULA
,
LATISSIMUS DORSI


EXTENDS AND ADDUCTS UPPER ARM
.
PECTORALIS MAJOR


FLEXES AND ADDUCTS UPPER ARM
.
DELTOID (INJECTION SITE)

ABDUCT THE UPPER ARM
.
BICEPS BRACHII


EXTENDS THE FOREARM
,
TRICEPS BRACHII


EXTENDS THE FOREARM
,
DIAPHRAGM AND INTERCOSTALS


RESPIRATIONS
,
4 LAYERS OF THE ABDOMINAL MUSCLES-

1. EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
2. INTERNAL OBLIQUE
3. TRANSVERSE ABDOMINIS
4. RECTUS ABDOMINIS
COMPRESSES ABDOMEN AND FLEXES TRUNK
.
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS

EXTENDS THIGH
,
GLUTEUS MEDIUS (INJECTION SITE)


ABDUCTS THIGH
,
ADDUCTORS


ADDUCT THIGH
.
SARTORIS

FLEXES THIGH AND ROTATE LOWER LEG TO CROSS LEGS
,
QUADRICEPS (RECTUS FEMORIS & VASTUS LATERALIS)

EXTEND LOWER LEG (KICK)
.
BICEPS FEMORIS (HAMSTRING GROUP)

FLEXES LOWER LEG
/
GASTROCNEMIUS


EXTEND FOOT (PLANTAR FLEX) TIPTOE
,
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR

DORSIFLEX FOOT (WALK ON HEELS)
.
PRIME MOVER


THE MUSCLE THAT IS MAINLY RESPONSIBLE FOR PRODUCING THE MOVEMENT
,
SYNERGIST


THE MUSCLES THAT HELP THE PRIME MOVER
/
ANTAGONIST


THE MUSCLE THAT PRODUCES THE OPPOSITE MOVEMENT
,
MUSCLES

FUNCTIONS
1. HEAT PRODUCTION
2. POSTURE
,
1ST FUNCTION OF MUSCLES--POSTURE

1. MUSCLE TONE -MUSCLES ARE AT A STATE OF PARTIAL CONTRACTION READY TO CONTRACT--MUSCLES ARE NEVER COMPLETELY RELAXED

2. MUSCLE TONE MAINTAINS POSTURE
3. GOOD POSTURE IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE BODY ORGANS FUNCTION AT THEIR BEST, WEIGHT IS DISTRIBUTED EVENLY, LESS STRAIN ON MUSCLES, LIGAMENTS, TENDONS, BONES, LOOK BETTER AND TIRE LESS!
.
2ND FUNCTION OF MUSCLES--HEAT PRODUCTION

1. MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS PRODUCE MOST OF THE HEAT THAT MAINTAINS OUR BODY TEMP

2. WHEN ATP BREAKS DOWN, MOST OF THE ENERGY IS USED TO SHORTEN THE MUSCLE FIBERS (ACTIN & MYOSIN) BUT SOME HEAT ENERGY IS ALSO RELEASED.
,
BENEFITS OF EXERCISE

1. IMPROVE MUSCLE TONE
2. BETTER POSTURE
3. MORE EFFICIENT HEART AND LUNG FUNCTION
4. LESS FATIGUE
5. LOOK AND FEEL BETTER
6. USE OF MUSCLES INCREASES THE MYOFILAMENT IN EACH MUSCLE FIBER, THIS INCREASES THE MASS OF THE MUSCLE.
,
MORE BENEFITS OF EXERCISE

7. EXERCISE ALSO INCREASES THE BLOOD FLOW AND PROVIDES MORE OXYGEN AND GLUCOSE TO THE MUSCLE
8. EXERCISE ALSO INCREASES THE NUMBER OF MITOCHRONDRIA IN THE MUSCE FIBERS, WHICH INCREASES THE PRODUCTION OF ATP
/
THE PART OF A LONG BONE THAT CONTAINS RED BONE MARROW IS ??


EPIPHYSIS
.
THE TYPE OF MUSCLE TISSUE THAT IS STRIPED IN APPEARANCE AND IS VOLUNTARY IS ??


STRIATED
.
THE CHANNELS THAT ALLOW BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES TO TO THROUGH COMPACT BONE ARE CALLED ??


HAVERSIAN CANALS
.
AN EXAMPLE OF A SHORT BONE IS ??


CARPAL
,
THE WASTE PRODUCT LACTIC ACID OCCURS WHEN ??


WHEN ENERGY IS MADE WITHOUT USING OXYGEN
,
MUSCLES THAT HELP TEH PRIME MOVER ARE CALLED ???


SYNERGISTS
,
IN THE MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF A MUSCLE, MYOFILAMENTS ARE MADE UP OF ???


ACTIN AND MYOSIN
.
IN A DIARTHROSES, THE AREA BETWEEN THE TWO BONES IS CALLED THE ???


JOINT CAVITY
,
THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANE THAT LINES THE JOINT CAPSULE AND SECRETES FLUID IS THE ???


SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
,
THE SOCKET IN THE PELVIS THAT ARTICULATES WITH THE HEAD OF THE FEMUR IS THE ???


ACETABULUM
,
THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANE THAT COVERS THE DIAPHYSIS IS ???


PERIOSTEUM
,
THE IMMATURE BONE CELLS THAT PRODUCE MATRIX AND SECRETE IT AROUND THEMSELVES ARE CALLED ???


OSTEBLASTS
,
WHEN BONE REMODELING OCCURS DEPENDS ON ???


CALCIUM LEVEL OF THE BLOOD
,
OSSIFICATION BEGINS ???


THE SECOND OR THIRD MONTH OF FETAL DEVELOPMENT
,
OSSIFICATION ???


CONTINUES THROUGHOUT LIFE
,
THE DIVISION OF THE SKELETON THAT INCLUDES THE BONES OF THE HEAD AND TRUNK ???


AXIAL SKELETON
,
A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MALE AND FEMALE PELVIS IS ???


THE FEMALE PELVIS INLET AND OUTLET IS WIDER
.
THE PART OF THE VERTEBRA THAT IS BLOCK-LIKE AND STACKS IS THE ???


BODY
,
THE PART OF A VERTEBRA THAT IS THE HOLE OR PASSAGEWAY FOR THE SPINAL CORD IS THE ???


FORAMEN
.
A LATERAL PROJECTION OF A VERTEBRA IS CALLED ???


TRANSVERSE PROCESS
.
THE KIND OF JOINT THAT HAS SLIGHT MOVEMENT BETWEEN THE BONES IS ???


AMPHIARTHROSES
,
AN EXAMPLE OF A DIARTHROSES IS THE ???


KNEE
.
AN EXAMPLE OF A HINGE JOINT IS THE ???


ELBOW
.
SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE IS FOUND IN THE ???


INTESTINES
.
THE STATIONARY BONE WHERE A SKELETAL MUSCLE ATTACHES IS CALLED THE ???


ORIGIN
.
FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT ATTACHES MUSCLES TO BONES IS CALLED ???


TENDON
,
WHEN A NERVE CELL CARRIES AN ELECTRICAL IMPULSE TO A MUSCLE FIBER ????


ACETYLCHOLINE IS RELEASED ONTO THE MUSCLE FIBER
,
A FUNCTION OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM IS ???


HEAT PRODUCTION
.
THE STATE IN WHICH MUSCLES ARE PARTIALLY CONTRACTED IS CALLED ???


MUSCLE TONE
.
STEPS OF BONE FORMATION

1. COLLAGEN FIBER SECRETED BY FIBROBLAST

2. CARTILAGE DEPOSITED BETWEEN FIBERS

3. OSSIFICATION
.
CHILDHOOD=OSSIFICATION EXCEEDS BONE LOSS

MIDDLEAGE=OSSIFICATION EQUALS BONE LOSS

35+=BONE EXCEEDS OSSIFICATION
.
ATLAS
AXIS
THORACIC
CERVICAL
LUMBAR
SACRAL
COCCYX
.
HUMEROUS BONE=UPPER ARM
RADIUS=BONE ON THUMB SIDE OF FOREARM
ULNA=BONE ON LITTLE FINGER SIDE OF FOREARM
CARPALS=WRIST BONES
METACARPALS=HAND BONES
FINGERS-TOES=PHALANGES
FEMUR=THIGH BONE
.
PATELLA=KNEECAP
TIBIA=SKIN BONE
FIBULA=LATERAL BONE ON LOWER LEG
TARASALS=ANKLE BONES
METATARSALS=FOOT BONES
LEVERS=MUSCLES ATTACH TO BONES TO HELP PROVIDE MOVEMENT
,
PATELLA=KNEECAP
TIBIA=SKIN BONE
FIBULA=LATERAL BONE ON LOWER LEG
TARASALS=ANKLE BONES
METATARSALS=FOOT BONES
LEVERS=MUSCLES ATTACH TO BONES TO HELP PROVIDE MOVEMENT
,
TO MAKE ATP 1. NEED OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS (FOOD) WHEN LOW ON OXYGEN, BODY CAN SWITCH TO A TYPE OF ENERGY CONVERSION THAT DOES NOT REQUIRE OXYGEN, BUT A WASTE PRODUCT (LACTIC ACID) IS FORMED. LACTIC ACID CAUSES MUSCLE ACHES AND MUSCLE FATIGUE
10. WE OFTEN HAVE LABORED BREATHING AFTER WE EXERCISE TO "PAY THE OXYGEN DEBT" IN OTHER WORDS, WE TAKE IN MORE OXYGEN AS WE BREATH TO GET RID OF THE EXERCISE LACTIC ACID TO BUILD UP OUT ATP AND OXYGEN RESERVES IN OUR MUSCLES.
.
HOW A MUSCLE CONTRACTS 1.NERVE CELL CARRIES AN ELECTRICAL IMPULSE TO THE MUSCLE FIBER & RELEASES A CHEMICAL ACETYLCHOLINE ONTO THE MUSCLE FIBER 2.THIS STIMULATES THE RELEASE OF CALCIUM FROM ER IN THE CYTOPLASM & ALSO STIMULATES ATP (STORED ENERGY) TO BREAKDOWN & RELEASE ENERGY. 3. USING THE ENERGY, THE CALCIUM HELPS THE MYOSIN & ACTIN ATTACH, SLIDING THE ACTIN TOGETHER. THUS SHORTENING THE MUSCLE CONTRACTION 4. FOR RELAXATION THE CALCIUM DETACHES & GOES BACK INTO THE ER UNTIL THE NEXT NERVE IMPULSE. THE MUSCLE FIBER GOES BACK TO ITS ORIGINAL LENGTH
.