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110 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the most abundant mineral in the human body?
Calcium
Found in bone marrow, what cells specialize in storing energy as fat?
Adipocytes (Adipose Cells)
What is the substance that makes marrow yellow?
Fat (adipose)
Name the 2 types of tissue necessary to make up the skeletal system.
Cartilage and Bone
Tissues with high concentration of collagen are what color?
White
What is the technical term for cartilage cells?
Chondrocytes
Name the 3 types of cartilage
Elastic, Hyaline, Fibrocartilage
Name a type of cartilage that is also known as "yellow cartilage"
Elastic
To keep tubes open, this type of cartilage must be present
Elastic
What is the most abundant cartilage in the human body?
Hyaline
What type of cartilage mostly forms the fetal skeleton?
Hyaline
What is another name for white cartilage?
Fibrocartilage
What is the type of connective tissue that has an abundance of inorganic calcium salts?
Bone
What is the most abundant organic substance in bone?
Collagen
What substance makes teeth and bone rigid?
Hydroxyapatite
What is the name of the rounded end of bone?
Epiphyses
Covering the surface of the diaphysis, name the thin layer of connective tissue
Periosteum
The periosteum is attached to underlying bone by?
Sharpey's Fibres
Most limb bones are what type of bone?
Long bones
The knee cap is a classic example of what type of bone?
Sesamoid
What bony landmark has a tube-like opening?
Meatus
Most abundant mineral SALT in the bone?
Calcium Phosphate
Name the fibre that allows flexibility of a bone
Collagen
What bone cells are active during resorption(process of breaking down a bone)
Osteoclasts
Name the most abundant bone cells
Osteocytes
What are the functional units of compact bone
Osteons (Haversian Systems)
Vessels and nerves pass through bone via these
Volkmann's Canals (aka, Perforating Canals)
Compact Bone; between lamallae are lacunae, and within lacunae are
Osteocytes
What connect the lacunae?
Canaliculi
Specifically, what layers of compact bone are reabsorbed first?
Circumferential Lamellae
In intramembraneous ossification, what is the type of starting tissue?
Mesenchymal
During intramembraneous ossification, the trabecular bone is first laid down as needle-like structures called
Spicules
When bone grows in width, it is called this
Appositional growth
What is the substance in blood that causes chondrocytes to swell and die?
Oxygen
What method of bone growth forms flat bones?
Intramembraneous Ossification
What surface does endochondral addition of bone occur on?
Diaphyseal Surface
Name the zone of the growth plate that is closest to the epiphysis
zone of reserve cartilage
Around what age do the bones stop growing?
20(18-25)
What hormone closes the growth plate?
Estrogen
What process renews osseous tissue before deterioration sets in?
Bone remodelling
Renewal rate for spongy bone is how many times greater than that of compact bone tissue?
5 times; 20%spongy,4%compact
At which articulation do nearly half of all growth plate fractures occur?
The wrist
Another name for bone spurs?
Osteophytes
A bone spur on the DIP joint of a finger is called?
Heberden's node
What is the name of the adult form of Rickets?
Osteomalacia
What percentage of bone is present in our total body mass?
approx. 20
What vitamin is needed for collagen synthesis?
C
What vitamin stimulates osteoblasts?
A
What bone cells are overactive during puberty?
Osteoblasts
Calcitonin causes blood calcium levels to?
decrease
Which bone cell does the parathyroid hormone work on?
Osteoblast
What type of bone growth is used to repair a bone fracture?
Endochondral ossification
What is the final stage of bone healing?
Remodelling
What is a bone fracture that breaks the skin called?
open or compound
What term refers to reducing the distance between fractured bone pieces?
Reduction
What is the grinding/grating sound/sensation that comes from a joint or bone called?
crepitus
Undersecretion of hGH cause what pathology?
dwarfism
What is the most commonly fractured bone in the human body?
clavicle
What are open fractures at huge risk of?
infection (osteomyelitis)
What are the 3 functional classes of joints?
Synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis
What are the 2 types of synarthrosis?
Synchondroses & Synostoses
What are the joints called where 2 bones are connected by a piece of cartilage?
Synchondroses
What type of joint involves bones united by an interosseous ligament?
Syndesmosis
What type of joint allows for a wide variety of movement?
diarthroses (synovial)
What are found between bones of the skull?
Sutures
What is the joint between the root of a tooth and the sockets in the maxilla or mandible?
Gomphoses
What thick, stringy fluid is found in the cavities of synovial joints?
synovial fluid
In synovial cavities, this is their "blood".
synovial fluid
Located at the point where a muscle or tendon slides across bone, what is the small fluid-filled sac called?
Bursae
These are describe as tube-like bursae
Tendon Sheaths
The surgical replacement of a joint is called?
arthroplasty
The twisting of a joint that stretches or tears ligaments is classified as a?
sprain
What type of joint allows side-to-side movement only?
plane (or gliding) joint
cartilage has no blood supply going to it, therefore it is?
avascular
What tissue is always place on the interor of a bone?
calcaneous
What is the largest and most complex joint of the body?
tibiofemoral joint (or knee joint)
What joint is a modified hinge joint made of 3 joints within a single synovial cavity?
tibiofemoral joint (or knee joint)
What is the longest and strongest bone in the human body?
femur (or thighbone)
What are 4 types of bone cells?
osteogenic, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
What in compact bone tissue aligns itswelf along lines of stress?
osteons
Where is the nutrient foramen located?
near the center of the diaphysis
What is another name for bone formation?
Osteogenisis
What 2 types of growth does endochondral ossification promote?
interstitial & appositional growth
What is the first zone of resting cartilage at the epiphyseal plate called?
zone of reserve
What zone do chondrocytes die in at the epiphyseal plate?
zone of calcified cartilage
What is the shaft/body of the bone called?
diaphyseal
At any given time, what percent of total bone mass is being remodeled in our body?
5%
In bone remodeling, which 2 activities must always be balanced?
osteoclastic & osteoblastic
What is the 2nd stage of endochondral ossification?
hypertrophy of chondrocytes
Osteophytes of the fingers/toes are known as what if on the PIP joints?
Bouchard's nodes
Osteomalacia in adults is due to?
vitamin d defficiency
What vitamins are needed for protein synthesis?
vitamin K and b12
What is important in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism?
Insulin
What acts to slow reabsorption of bone by promoting apoptosis in osteoclasts?
estrogen
PTH first step is
decrease of bone
PTH second step is
increase of calcium in the blood
Calcitonin first step is
descrese blood calcium
Calcitonin second step is
increase of bone calcium
What is a complete severing of a bone defined as?
Broken
What is a crack or a break in a bone defined as?
Fracture
Cartilagenous joints lack?
synovial cavity
Another name for sutures?
fontanels
What allows 2 bones of different shapes to fit tightly together?
Menisci (or articular discs)
Shoulders and hips are examples of what types of joint?
ball and socket joints
What type of joint promotes turning a head side-to-site/"no"?
Pivot joint
What is a combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction?
Circumduction
What attach the humerus to the scapula, encircle the joint supporting the capsule, hold the head of the humerus in socket and strengthen the joints?
rotator cuff muscles
What bone is part of joint capsule anteriorly?
patella
In range of motion in a synovial joint, the weaker the joint, the most _______.
movable
What pathology is a degenerative joint disease and defined as wear and tear?
Osteoarthritis