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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Ribs
-12 pairs
-attached to thoracic

-first 7 attached to sternum
-8,9,10 attached to each other, then 7th
-11,12 stick out on sides, short
#
placement
Sesamoid Bone
-imbedded in tendon
-Patella
where
example
Girdles
Pelvis + Pectoral
-huge muscles that holds up bones

Pectoral (movement):
-scalpula + clavicle
-hold arms by pectoral muscle
-strength support
what
examples
include...
job
Foramen
-holes

-carry blood vessels in bone for cells

-in ends of bones

Foramen Magnum~
-base of skull
-nerves enter brain
job
where 2
Haversian System
HAVERSIAN CANAL
-canal brings in blood vessels
-center of H system

-layers of protein wrap around it
where
job
other
H System
LACUNAE
-hollow gap

-on lamellae

-osteocytes (bone cells)

-blood vessels go thru interconnected H canals to lacunae
-feed cells
what
where
has in it
fed by
H System
LAMELLAE
-matrix layers

-made of collagen
what
made of
H System
CANALICULUS
-microscopic canals

-connect to lacunae
-bring blood
size
what
H System
BLOOD'S PATH
1-Foramen

2-H Canals

3-Canaliculus
3
Fontanelles
-soft spots

-brain + skull can grow

-head has give in birth
(cone head)

-hardens into sutures
(bones fuse together)
another name
why 2
causes
when older ...
Strong Bones
-calcium
-vitamin D
(helps calcium absorbtion thru digestive system)
-excersize
-no smoking/alcohol
4
Ossification
(cartilage becomes bone)

1. Starts in bone center @ epipheseal disc

2. Osteoclasts destroy cartilage
Osteoblasts follow + make bone

3. Disc pushed from center to bone ends
what is it
where
job
Bone Growth
(further growth in life)
~genetic

1.Growth Plate (catrilage layer between epiphysis + diaphysis of bone)
-on each end

2. Cartilage cells (mitosis) divide, enlarge,push older cells to middle of shaft

3. Older cells replaced by bone = grow in length


4. at 17-20 cartilage cells @ growth plate stop dividing
-taken over by bone
-adult height

Growth spurt = testosterone = cartilage cells grow fast
what is...
how
cause
stops at...
=
growth spurt
Healing Process
1. Clot

2.Cuff (calus)~ periosteum produces osteocytes to form it around fracture

3. Osteoblasts respond w/in 48 hours + new bone appears

4.Osteoclasts devour bone fragments/blood from fracture
-smooths edges/cuff after healed
what made
how
after
heal...
Bone Disorders
COMPOUND FRACTURE
-bone sticks out of body
where bone
B Disorders
STRESS FRACTURE
-crack due to constant pressure

-ex backpack on shoulders
what/how
ex
B Disorders
SCOLIOSIS
-spine curves rt/lft
what
B Disorders
ARTHRITIS
(swollen joints)

Rheumatoid
~genetic
-autoimmune disease
-body eats ends of bones

Osteoarthritis
~happens w/aging
-wear/tear of joints causes mometnary swelling
what
2
how happen
what happens
causes
B Disorders
SHIN SPLINTS
-due to slapping of feet when running

-tibia doesn't absorb shock
-mem holding tibia to fibula swells/hurts
cause
how
cause
B Disorders
BONE SPURS
-extra bone sticking out

-increase of bone tissue in area
-due to constant movement
-(piano fingers)

-like callus it protects
what
cause
like what
B DIsorders
DOUBLE JOINTED
-more elastin so
-loose tendons

genetic
cause
causes
how get it
Osteoporosis
-thinning/weaking of bones (porous)

1-tiny fractures in spine bones

2-bones compress/flatten

3-shoulders round, rib cage on hip bones, organs crowd, abdomen out
what
how
Osteoporosis
After Age 30
-@ 30, one can lose 1% or more bone mass a year

-menopause occurs in women after 30 = lose estrogen = lose bone-strengthening benefits

-age 65 = one absorbs less calcium
3
why
causes
Osteoporosis
Higher Risk
1. Women/Menopause
-lose estrogen + bone strengthening benifits

2. Smoking
-if pre-menopause smoker
...-menopause occurs earlier

3. Alcohol ~ poison to osteoblasts (bone forming)
3
cause
Osteoporosis
Calcium Needed
-good bone health
-blood clotting
regulate heart beat

-if not enough for body, body takes it from bones
-weaken them
neede for 3
if not enough
Osteoporosis
Prevention
1. Excersize
-running/weight lifting 30 min, 4x weekly
-puts bones into strengthening mode

2. Bone Mineral Density Test (x-ray)
-asseses bone strength
-predicts future problems
-people w/risk facotrs, 40+, on hormone replacement therapy for long time

3. Drink Milk
-a lot when younger + need it (ages 9-18)
-bones develop, grow in size/density in childhood (90% bone mass by 17)
-18+ bones increase
3
why
ex
what
when
Name of Bone Disorders
-compound fracture
-shin splint
-arthritis
-scoliosis
-stress fracture
-double jointed
-bone spurs
7