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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bone - roles
specialized CT
storage site for Ca and PO4
homeostasis of blood Ca
Bone - components
cells and ECM
ECM mineralized, support/protection
mineral is hydroxyapatite
Proteins of bone matrix
Collagen
90% type I
some V, trace II, XI, XIII
Proteins of bone matrix
Non-collagenous
Proteoglycans
Multiadhesive proteins
Bone specific vitamin K dependent proteins
Growth factors/cytokines
Non-collagenous proteins
Proteoglycans
compressive strength
bind growth factors
inhibit mineralization
Non-collagenous proteins
Multiadhesive proteins
attach bone cells and collagen fibers to ground substance
osteonectin: attaches collagen and hydroxyapatite
sialoproteins: mediate attachment, initiate CaPO4 formation during crystallization
Non-collagenous proteins
Bone specific Vitamin K dependent proteins
osteocalcin: recruits serum Ca ions, activates osteoclasts
Protein S
Matrix Gla-protein
Non-collagenous proteins
Growth factors/cytokines
insulin like growth factors
tumor necrosis factor
transforming factor
platelet derived growth factor
interleukins
Bone morphologic proteins (BMPs) - induce differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts
Lacunae
osteocyte caves - interconnected via canaliculi (osteocyte processes) which allow contact between neighboring osteocytes/blasts
Bone tissue components
bone, hemopoietic, fat, BVs, nerves, hyaline cartilage
Compact bone
dense with lamellar structure
spongy/cancellous bone
formed of anastamosing trabeculae, spaces between trabeculae filled with marrow and BVs
Long bones
longer in one dimension
diaphysis - shaft
epiphysis - end
metaphysis - tapered region between epiphysis and diaphysis
medullary cavity - in shaft, marrow filled space
tibia, humerus, metacarpals
Short bones
as long as wide
carpal bones of wrist
Flat bones
Thin, platelike
thick compact layers sandwich spongy bone
Calvaria (roof of skull), sternum
Irregular bones (junk drawer)
Don't fit into other 3 categories
Vertebrae, ethmoid bone
Periosteal surface of bone
Periosteum
1) outer fibrous layer
Collagen runs II to bone surface
Sharpey's fibers - collagen embedded in bone, periosteal anchor
2) inner, cellular layer (osteoprogenitor cells)
reduced in nonactively dividing bones
collagen runs II to bone surface
Bone cavities
Endosteum
Composed of osteoprogenitor cells, bone lining cells, osteoblasts
Red marrow
developing blood cells
reticular fibers and cells
blood vessels
Yellow marrow
fat cells
can revert to red marrow following injury or blood loss
Osteon components
Haversian canal
contains BVs and nerves
Osteon components
Interstitial lamellae
located between osteons, remnants of old osteons
Osteon components
Collagen orientation
fibers run II within lamella, but perpendicular to fibers in adj lamallae
Osteon components
Circumferential lamellae
surround entire bone from peri to endosteum
Osteon components
Volkman's/perforating canals
Connect Haversian canals, run perpendicular to bone's long axis (not surrounded by concentric lamellae)
Osteon components
Nutrient foramina
Vessels enter bone here, located in epiphyses and diaphyses
Mature spongy bone structure
tissue arranged as trabeculae
marrow interconnects between trabeculae
thicker trabeculae are osteon containing
Blood supply to bone
Vessels enter through nutrient foramina in dia/epiphyses
metaphysial arteries
veins leave nutrient foramina/venous drainage via periosteum
lacking lymphatic vessels
Immature/woven bone
differs from mature bone.
non lamellar
more cells/unit area than mature bone
random arrangement of cells
matrix has more ground substance
less heavily mineralized
more rapidly forming
Osteoprogenitor cells
mesenchymal origin
transform into osteoblasts
influenced by core binding factor alpha 1
found at periosteal and endosteal surfaces, osteonic and perforating canals
osteoprogenitor cell morphology
flat
lightly staining
elongate or ovid nuclei
some rER, Golgi, free ribosomes
osteoblasts
able to divide
secrete Type I collagen
responsible for calcification of bone matrix via membrane vesicles
Osteoid (unmineralized matrix)
non-collagenous bone matrix proteins
calcium binds: osteocalcin, osteonectin
multiadhesive glycoproteins: bone sialoproteins
Osteopontin, thrombospondin
Osteoblast vesicles
membrane limited organelles
rich in alkaline phosphotase
released only during matrix production
Osteoblast morphology
polygonal or cuboidal, single layer on bone surface
atop layer of osteoid
basophilic cytoplasm
prominent Golgi, rER, free ribosomes
PAS stained granules
Clinical markers of osteoblast activity
serum alkaline phosphotase and osteocalcin