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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many bones in the human skeleton?
Skeletal System: Function
to for a protective and supportive framework for the body, to produce movement with muscular system by providing a series of movable levers
What types of cells are produced in the bone marrow?
Red and white blood cells
bones store:
minerials (calcium)
what are ligaments
tough bands of white fiborus tissue that bind bones together
Why are joints important?
they permit bones to move without damaging them
What is cartiladge
scattered network of connective tissue, they dont have blood vessles
Immovable joints:
allow no movement, ex: the skull
Slightly movable joints:
small restricted movement, ex: joints between lower legs and adjacent vertebre
Freely movable joints:
allow movement ex:knee, hand elbow, hip
What is ossification
process of bone formation when cartiladge is replaced by bone
What is the primary function of the muscular system
to work with skeletal system to produce volentary movement
How does a muscle work
a muscle contracts when thin filaments in the muscle fibers slide over the thick filamments
What systems are involved in muscle contration
Muscles are made up of:
What are tendons:
tough connective tissue that joins the skeletal muscles to the bones, acts as a lever
Smooth Muscle Function:
move food/blood, contract pupils, involentary movement found in stomach, blood vessles, and intestines
Smooth Muscle Description:
spindle shaped, one nucleus
Skeletal Muscle Function:
voulentary movement
Skeletal Muscle Description:
many nuclei, striations
Cardiac Muscle Function:
used to pump blood in heart, involentary
Cardiac Muscle Description:
striations, 1 nucleus
Lymphatic System:
network of vessels, nodes, and organs
Function of Lymphatic System:
collect fluid lost by the blood and return it to the circulatory system
What is Lymph?
milky body fluid that contains a type of white blood cell with protein and fat
What do lymph nodes filter out of our bodies
Why do the lymph nodes get swollen:
when they remove an excess of antigens from the body
How is the lymphatic system connected to the digestive system
gets fats out of food and carries them to blood
how does the thymus in the lymphatic system assist the immune system?
t-cells (lymphocytes) mature here
What is the function of the spleen
cleanses blood and damaged blood cells out of circulatory system, has phagocytes that engulf microorganisms
What are some appendages of the skin
hair, sebacious glands, sweat glands, nails
What is the largest organ in the body?
prevents water loss, protects from UV light/baccteria/chemicals/an abrasion, it is dead cells and is waterproof
contains sweat and oil glands, nerves, blood and lymphatic vessles
Sweat gland:
prevents over-heating of body and regulates body temperature by excreting sweat, mixture of salts, antibodies, and metabolic products
protects scalp from injury/sun/decreases heat loss
Sebaceous Glands:
secretes oil, prevents excessive evaporation of water from skin, inhibits growth of certain bacteria
What is the main function of the nervous system?
collect information about internal/external conditions and coordinates the body's responce
responsible for voulkentary activities of the body, site of intelligence/learning/judgement
coordinates muscles to move smoothly
Brain Stem:
controlls basic functions of life such as blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and swollowing
What is the main function of the excretory system
maintain homwostasis/elimitate metabolic wastes/cool skin/ excrete sweat/maintain blood pH/regulate amt. of water in body
Besides urine, what else is excreted:
Sweat, CO2
Urine path:
kidneys to ureter to urinairy bladder to urethra
removes urea/excess water/filters the blood, maintains blood pH, regulate water content
tube from the kidneys to bladder that carries urine
urine is stored before being excreted/ is a sac
tube from bladder that leads out of the body carring urine
lungs- CO2
Why do drugs show up in urine tests
they are filtered out of the blood by kidneys and are put into urine
What male reproductive organ produces sperm?
the testicles
name the male hormone produced and its function
testosterone- stimulates the development of sperm, secondary sex characteristics
What is produced in the ovary
an egg (ovum)
Main Female hormone=
estrogen- development of secondary sex characteristics and egg development
produces eggs/estrogen
Fallopian Tube
canal that the egg goes through from ovaries to uterus
place zygote development / nourishes zygote
canal leading from Uterus to outside the body
sac that holds the testes/regulates their temperature
Vas deferens
canal that merges with urethra to carry sperm
Seminiferous tubules
place where sperm are produced
place where sperm and testosterone are made
Main function of the endocrine system:
release products into the bloodstream that deliver messages throughout the body, control growth, development
what do hormones do
chemicals that travel through the bloodstream and affect the activities of cells in other parts of the body
Why is the hypothalymus the
"master" gland
it controls the secretions of the pituitairy.
How do the hypothalamus and pituitary interrelate?
they coordinate many body activities to gether; pituitairy is controled by the pituitairy
which gland controls your metabolism
What is "fight-or-flight"
adrenal medulla gland, response for getting scared or excited, produce ephiniephrine
What is the pancreas
an organ that controls blood sugar levels
What diseases affect the pancreas
Diabetes Mellitus, when it can not produce insulin
What happens when thyroxine amt. in blood increases?
cellular activity in the body increases and metablolic activity increases (TRH and TSH are released less)
Which hormone directly stimulates target cells in the body?
How does the feedback loop help maintain homeostasis
substance produced that inhibits the process that produced substance in the first place
nervous and endocrine gland interract, makes hormones that control the pituitairy, stores hormones
produces hormones that regulate other endocrine glands
help the body respond to stress by producing epinephrine and norepinephrine
produces thyroxine to regulate metabolism throught the body
produces insulin and glucagun, which regulate the level of glucose in the blood
what is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands
exocrine secrete hormones through ducts directly, but endocrine glands secrete hormones to the blood
what is cretinism and how is it prevented
skeletal/nervous systems dont develop properly, dosage of small amounts of iodine
what is the main function of the circulatory system
to bring oxygen/nutrients/hormones/wastes/others to destination
what is carried in the circulatory system
oxygen, nutrients, hormones, wastes. blood
where does gas exchange take place
how is oxygen exchanged in the capilaries
what gas does an artery carry
what is the relationship of arteries to the heart
they carry oxygen rich blood out of the heart
what does a vein carry
what does a vein do related to a heart
brings oxygen poor blood to it
what connect the arteries and veins
pumps blood through circulatory system
carry oxygen poor blood to the heart
bring oxygen rich blood from the heart
exchange nutrients and wastes between the arteries and veins
protective sac that covers the heart
upper chamber of heart that recieves blood
lower chamber of heart that pumps oxygen rich blood out
wall in heart to prevent oxygen rich/poor blood from mixing
anterior/superior vena cava
vein that brings oxygen poor blood to the right atrium from the upper body
posterior/inferior vena cava
vein that brings oxygen poor blood from lower part of body to right atrium
what is the difference between systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation
pulmonary pumps blood to the lungs while the system is pumps blood to the rest of the body
how much blood does the human body have
4-6 liters
what is the largest vessel in the body
what is the function of the repiratory system
to bring about the exchange of oxygen and CO2 between the blood, the air, and the tissues
which part of the respiratory system does gas exchange take place
explain gas exchange
oxygen dissolves in the moisture on the inner surface of alveoli and then diffuses across thin walled capilaries into the blood
how is breathing controled
the mendulla oblengata forces you to breathe
whats the difference between cellular respiration and respiration
cellular respiration is the release of energy from the breakdown of nutrients but respiration is process of gas exchange
to allow oxygen to be absorbed into the blood
windpipe that brings air to lungs
brings air to alveoli
place where gas exchange occur
flat muscle that pushes up/down to pull/push air in/out of lungs
flap of tissue that prevents flood from flowing into lungs
contains vocal cords that allow us to speak
passageway for air and food
what is the main function of the digestive system
help convert food into simpler molecules that can be absorbed and used by the cells of the body
describe the difference between chemical and mechanichal digestion
chemical involves the use of chemicals/enzymes/acids, but mechanical is the phisical breakdown of food
where does chemical digestion occur
small intestine/sotmach
where does mechanical digestion occur
what is the siginificance of villi
they increase surface area of the small intestine
tear and crush food mechanically
tube that food passes through from mouth to stomach
continues to mechanically and chemically digest food by churning and mixing food
small intestine
absorbes the nutrients and chemically breaks down what is left over
large intestine
also called colon, removes water from undigested matter
tube waste passes through to exit the body
eliminates solid waste
liver (digestive)
accesory organ that produces bile to break down food in the small intestine
pancreas (digestive)
produce hormones to regulate blood sugar, makes enzymes to break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids and makes a base to neutralize stomach acids
salivairy glands
accesory organ that secretes to moisten and make food easier to chew, begins chemical digestion/fights infection
fluids made oflipids used to break down fat in the small intestine
where does the bile go after it leaves the gall bladder
bile duct
what are the three parts of the small intestine
duodenum, jejonum, cleum
what is peristalsis
contractions in esophagus that forces food to the stomach
what is chyme
mixture of stomach acids and food
what is a bolus
chewed up food
what is peristalsis
contractions in esophagus that forces food to the stomach
what is chyme
mixture of stomach acids and food
what is a bolus
chewed up food