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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 functions of the nervous system?
1) gather information
2) transmits information
3) processes information
4) sends info to effector organs
Integrative Function
processes information to determine the body's best response
Sensory Function
gathers information from outside and inside the body
What is a Neuron?
Functional unit of the nervous system
What are the 4 parts of a neuron?
1) cell body
2) dendrites
3) axon
4) synapse
What is a dendrite?
conduct impulses toward cell body
What is an axon?
carries electrical impulse away from cell body
What is a synapse?
contact point of axon of one neuron and dendrite of one neuron
What is a myelin sheath?
greatly increases the speed of an impulse
What is a myelin sheath made of?
formed by schwann cells, 80% lipid and 20% protein
What are nodes of Ranvier?
Small gaps between adjacent myelin cells
What is action potential?
Occurs when threshold is exceeded (-60 mV)
What three parts of the brain are part of the nervous system?
1) Cerebrum
2) Brain Stem
3) Cerebellum
What are the four lobes of the cerebrum?
1) frontal
2) parietal
3) occipital
4) temporal
What connects the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum?
Corpus collosum
What are the 3 functions of the Cerebrum?
1) contains higher brain function
2) voluntary muscular movement
3) processes sensory information
What are the 4 parts of the diencephalon?
1) Optic tracts
2) Thalamus
3) Hypothalamus
4) Posterior pituitary
What is the thalamus?
sensory and motor signals pass through
What does the hypothalamus do (3 things)?
1)maintains homeostasis
2)regulates heart rate and blood pressure
3)acts as a link between the nervous and endodrine systems
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem?
1) medula oblongata
2) pons
3) midbrain
What four centers are regulated by the medulla oblongata?
1)cardiac center
2)vasomotor center
3)reflex centers
4)control center of vital visceral activity
What does the cardiac center do?
Regulate heart rate
What are the 2 functions of the vasomotor centers
1)constrict and dialate blood vessels
2)regulate rythem and depth of breathing
What do the reflex centers control?
Coughing, sneezing, etc.
What are the 2 functions of the pons?
1)help regulate rate and depth of breathing
2)act as relay station between various pats of the cerebral cortex
What is another name for the midbrain?
What 3 things are controlled by the midbrain?
1)visual and auditory reflexes
3)smooths out movement
What is the main purpose of the cerebellum?
Vital for normal motor function (coordination of voluntary movements, posture and equilibrium)
What does the spinal cord contain?
neurons that carry signals to the CNS from sensory neurons, and axons of motor neurons and carry information to effector organs
What does the spinal cord connect?
brain and PNS
HOw many nerve paire does the spinal cord contain?
What is the main function of the Autonomic Nervous System?
maintain internal organs
What is Sympathetic division?
releases norepinephrine and escites an effector organ (thoracolumbar)
What is Parasympathetic division?
releases acetylcholine and inhibits effector organs (cranial sacral)
5 functions of the Endocrine system?
1)help regulate metabolic processes
2)control rate of certain dhemical reactions
3)transport substances across membranes
4)help regulate water cycle and electrolyte balance
5)reproduction, development and growth
Main function of the endocrine system?
maintain homeostasis in the body by adjostin gto different recieved signals
What are hormones?
molecule released to affect the action of another organ, with effects lasting from minutes to days
What are the 2 types of hormones?
1) steroids
2) amines, peptides, or protein
What are glands?
where hormones are secreted from endocrine and non-endorine tissues
What are the 4 endocrine tissues?
1) anterior pituitary
2) thyroid
3) adrenals
4) pancreas
What are the 4 non-endocrine tissues?
1) hypothalamus
2) posterior pituitary
3) heart
4) liver and kidneys
What is the main control center of hormone secretion?
What glands are stimulated by the CNS directly?
adrenal glands
What does the hypothalamus do?
acts as nucleus of nervous function, homeostasis regluation, and controls activity of pituitary
What are positive inputs?
Sleep, exercise, stress, low BG
What are negative inputs?
What hormones are released by the Anterior Pituitary (5)?
1)Thyroid Stimlulating Hormone (TSH)
2)Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)
3)Growth Hormone
4)LH & FSH
-reproductive hormones
What is the anterior pituitary made of?
Glandular tissue makeup
What hormone does the posterior pituitary release?
Anti-diuretic hormone
What signals the release of Anti-diuretic hormone, and what does it to to fix it?
sweating or dehydration
-increases H2O reabsorption
-regulates body fluids
What hormone does the anterior pituitary control?
Growth hormone
What signals the release of growth hormone?
exercise and low blood sugar
-muscle, adipose, liver
What does growth hormone do?
stimulates protein synthesis and bone growth
What hormones are released by the thyroid gland?
T3 and Thyroxine
What do T3 & Thyroxine do?
regulate metabolism of CHO, lipids & directly control metabolic rate
-inc. enerty release from CHO
-inc. rate of protein synthesis
-inc. rate of fat breakdown
What are the two parts of the adrenal glands?
1) Adrenal Medulla (inside)
2) Adrenal Cortex (outside)
What does the Adrenal Medulla do?
as part of SNS, secretes catecholamines, and releases epinephrine and norepinephrine
What does the Adrenal Cortex do?
Secretes steroid hormones, releases aldosterone, cortisol, sex steroids
What hormone does the kidney release?
Erythropoetin (EPO)
What signals the release of Erythropoetin?
altitude, anemia, and blood loss
What does Erythropoetin do?
sstimulates red blood cell growth in the bone marrow