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121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cell membrane
the "skin" of the cell made of phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins a double layered structure
cytology
jelly like substance filling the inside of the cell
diffusion
the movement of gases or other particles from an area of greater pressure or concentration to an area of lower pressure or consentration
endoplasmic reticulum
network of membrane, bound tubules that extend the cell membrane to the nuclear membrane
mitochondria
large organelles surrounded by double membrane
nucleus
most prominent organelle because it contains the genetic material or DNA of the cell, referred to as the control center
organelles
special subdivisions, similar to the human bodys organs which carry out many of the functions of cells
ribosomes
made of ribosomal RNA and protein. found on the surface of rough ER and floating freely within the cytoplasm.
vacuoles
a small cavity or space in the tissues of an organism containing air or fluid
gene
a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material
osmosis
movement of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane (as of a living cell) into a solution of higher solute concentration that tends to equalize the concentrations of solute on the two sides of the membrane
cytoplasm
the organized complex of inorganic and organic substances external to the nuclear membrane of a cell and including the cytosol and membrane-bound organelles (as mitochondria or chloroplasts)
organs
a differentiated structure (as a heart or kidney) consisting of cells and tissues and performing some specific function in an organism
cell
a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various nonliving products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently
system
a group of body organs or structures that together perform one or more vital functions. example circulatory system
tissues
an aggregate of cells usually of a particular kind together with their intercellular substance that form one of the structural materials of a plant or an animal and that in animals include connective tissue, epithelium, muscle tissue, and nerve tissue
organism
an individual constituted to carry on the activities of life by means of organs separate in function but mutually dependent : a living being
molecule
the smallest particle of a substance that retains all the properties of the substance and is composed of one or more atoms
atom
the smallest particle of an element that can exist either alone or in combination
anatomical position
body is upright with the face front and arms at the sides with the palms facing forward and feet parallel
hotizontal plane/transverse plane
cuts the body horizontally creating a superior and inferior portion
posterior/dorsal
situated at or toward the hind part of the body. opposite the ventral
anterior
toward the front of hte body or the belly
ventral/anterior
toward the front of the body or belly
prone
having the front or ventral surface downward; especially : lying facedown
supine
lying on the back or with the face upward
superior
above or in a higher position
inferior
a point lower than or below a reference point
caudad
toward the tail or posterior end
distal
farther away from the origin of a structure
proximal
a point nearer the origin of a structure
superficial
a point that is pertaining to or situated near the surface of an object
external
situated near or toward the surface of the body
internal
situated near the inside of the body
body cavity
internal spaces in which various organs are located. example dorsal, ventral cranial cavity.
abdominal quadrant
LUQ, LLQ, RUQ, RLQ
abdominal regions
1. epigastric 2.3. left and right hypochondriac 4. umbilical 5.6. left and right lumbar 7. suprapubic and hypogastric 8.9.left and right inguinal or iliac
lumbar
abdominal region lying on either side of the umbilical region and above the corresponding iliac region
umbilicus
a depression in the middle of the abdomen that marks the point of former attachment of the umbilical cord to the embryo
inguinal
of, relating to, or situated in the region of the groin
microscopic
so small or fine as to be invisible or indistinguishable without the use of a microscope
gastroenterology
a branch of medicine concerned with the structure, functions, diseases, and pathology of the stomach and intestines
pulmonology
a branch of medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the lungs
cardiology
the study of the heart and its action and diseases
hematology
a medical science that deals with the blood and blood-forming organs
immunology
a science that deals with the immune system and the cell-mediated and humoral aspects of immunity and immune responses
dermatology
a branch of science dealing with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases
orthopedics
a branch of medicine concerned with the correction or prevention of deformities, disorders, or injuries of the skeleton and associated structures (as tendons and ligaments)
neurology
a branch of medicine concerned especially with the structure, functions, and diseases of the nervous system
urology
a branch of medicine dealing with the urinary or urogenital organs
gynecology
a branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and routine physical care of the reproductive system of women
endocrinology
a science dealing with the endocrine glands
lumbar
abdominal region lying on either side of the umbilical region and above the corresponding iliac region
umbilicus
a depression in the middle of the abdomen that marks the point of former attachment of the umbilical cord to the embryo
inguinal
of, relating to, or situated in the region of the groin
microscopic
so small or fine as to be invisible or indistinguishable without the use of a microscope
gastroenterology
a branch of medicine concerned with the structure, functions, diseases, and pathology of the stomach and intestines
pulmonology
a branch of medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the lungs
cardiology
the study of the heart and its action and diseases
hematology
a medical science that deals with the blood and blood-forming organs
immunology
a science that deals with the immune system and the cell-mediated and humoral aspects of immunity and immune responses
dermatology
a branch of science dealing with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases
orthopedics
a branch of medicine concerned with the correction or prevention of deformities, disorders, or injuries of the skeleton and associated structures (as tendons and ligaments)
neurology
a branch of medicine concerned especially with the structure, functions, and diseases of the nervous system
urology
a branch of medicine dealing with the urinary or urogenital organs
gynecology
a branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and routine physical care of the reproductive system of women
endocrinology
a science dealing with the endocrine glands
lumbar
abdominal region lying on either side of the umbilical region and above the corresponding iliac region
umbilicus
a depression in the middle of the abdomen that marks the point of former attachment of the umbilical cord to the embryo
inguinal
of, relating to, or situated in the region of the groin
microscopic
so small or fine as to be invisible or indistinguishable without the use of a microscope
gastroenterology
a branch of medicine concerned with the structure, functions, diseases, and pathology of the stomach and intestines
pulmonology
a branch of medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the lungs
cardiology
the study of the heart and its action and diseases
hematology
a medical science that deals with the blood and blood-forming organs
immunology
a science that deals with the immune system and the cell-mediated and humoral aspects of immunity and immune responses
dermatology
a branch of science dealing with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases
orthopedics
a branch of medicine concerned with the correction or prevention of deformities, disorders, or injuries of the skeleton and associated structures (as tendons and ligaments)
neurology
a branch of medicine concerned especially with the structure, functions, and diseases of the nervous system
urology
a branch of medicine dealing with the urinary or urogenital organs
gynecology
a branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and routine physical care of the reproductive system of women
endocrinology
a science dealing with the endocrine glands
opthalmology
a branch of medical science dealing with the structure, functions, and diseases of the eye
otolaryngology
a medical specialty concerned especially with the ear, nose, and throat
oncology
the study of tumors
psychiatry
a branch of medicine that deals with the science and practice of treating mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders especially as originating in endogenous causes or resulting from faulty interpersonal relationships
dietetics
the science or art of applying the principles of nutrition to feeding
pharmacology
the science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use, and toxicology
geriatrics
a branch of medicine that deals with the problems and diseases of old age and aging people
lymphatic
of, relating to, or produced by lymph, lymphoid tissue, or lymphocytes
medial
closer to the middle of the body
anatomy
the study of body structure including the size, shape, and composition
physiology
the study of how the body functions
pathophysiology
the physiology of abnormal states; specifically : the functional changes that accompany a particular syndrome or disease
DNA
any of various nucleic acids that are usually the molecular basis of heredity, are constructed of a double helix held together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine bases which project inward from two chains containing alternate links of deoxyribose and phosphate, and that in eukaryotes are localized chiefly in cell nuclei -- called also deoxyribonucleic acid
RNA
any of various nucleic acids that contain ribose and uracil as structural components and are associated with the control of cellular chemical activities -- called also ribonucleic acid
mitosis
a process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell, involves typically a series of steps consisting of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, and results in the formation of two new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus
meiosis
the cellular process that results in the number of chromosomes in gamete-producing cells being reduced to one half and that involves a reduction division in which one of each pair of homologous chromosomes passes to each daughter cell and a mitotic division
metabolism
the cellular process that results in the number of chromosomes in gamete-producing cells being reduced to one half and that involves a reduction division in which one of each pair of homologous chromosomes passes to each daughter cell and a mitotic division
anabolism
building tissue
catabolism
breaking down tissue
solvent
that dissolves or can dissolve
suspension
the state of a substance when its particles are mixed with but undissolved in a fluid or solid
colloidal
a gelatinous or mucinous substance found in tissues in disease or normally (as in the thyroid)
hypertonic
have a greater concentration of solutes than plasma
isotonic
has the same concentration of solutes as blood plasma, isotonic solutions are often used to restore vascular volume
hypotonic
have a lesser concentration of solutes
homeostasis
the maintenance of relatively stable internal physiological conditions (as body temperature or the pH of blood) in higher animals under fluctuating environmental conditions; also : the process of maintaining a stable psychological state in the individual under varying psychological pressures or stable social conditions in a group under varying social, environmental, or political factors
acid
any substance that liberates hydrogen ions (proteins) in solutions
acidosis
an actual or relative increase in the acidity of blood due to an accumulation of acids, as in diabetic acidosis or renal disease.
alkali
a strong base. alkalies combine with acids to form salts, combine with fatty acids to form soap, neutralize acids and turn litmus paper blue
alkalosisan
an actual or relative increase in blood alkalinity ue to an accumulation of alkalies or reduction of acids
anion
an ion carrying a negative charge, the opposite of cation. an anion is attracted by and travels to the anode.
buffer
any of several molecules that react with strong acids or bases to prevent large changes in the PH of body fluids
dehydration
removal of water from a substance. the clinical consequences of negative fluid balance. ie fluid intakes that fail to match fluid losses. marked by thirst, orthostatic hypotention, tachycardia, elevated plasma sodium levels and cellular disruption.
diffusion
the tendency of molecules of a substance to move from a region of igh concentration to one of lower concentration. in the body, oxygen and carbon dioxide move by diffusion.
electrolyte
a substance that in solution conducts an electric current and is decomposed by its passage. acids basses and salts are common electrolytes
extracellular fluid
fluid situated or occurring outside a cell or the cells of the body
hypercalcemia
an excessive amount of calcium in the blood.
hyperkalemia
the presence of an abnormally high concentration of potassium in the blood
hypervolemia
an excessive volume of blood in the body