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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
axillary
armpit
brachial
upper arm
buccal, (oral)
mouth
cardiac
heart
cervical
neck
cranial
head
cutaneous
skin
deltoid
shoulder
femoral
thigh
frontal
forehead
gastric
stomach
gluteal
buttocks
hepatic
liver
iliac
hip
inguinal
groin
lumbar
spine
mammary
breast
nasal
nose
occipital
back of head
orbital
eye
parietal
crown of head
patellar
kneecap
pectoral
chest
perineal
pelvic floor
plantar
sole of foot
popliteal
back of knee
pulmonary
lungs
renal
kidney
sacral
base of spine
temporal
side of head
umbilical
naval
volar (palmar)
palm
anatomy
is the study of body structure
physiology
is the study of how the body functions
pathophysiology
is the study of disorders of functioning
Levels of Organization
there are 5, 6 sorta
1. chemical level
2. cellular level
3. tissue level
4. organ level
5. organ system level
6. organism level
chemicals make up the body there are 2 categories?
Inorganic
organic
inorganic chemicals
are usually simple molecules made of one or two elements other than carbon (with a few exceptions)
examples of inorganic chemicals
water h2o, oxygen o2, carbon dioxide co2, and minerals such as iron calcium and sodium
organic chemicals
are often very complex and always contain hydrogen
eexamples of organic chemicals
carbs, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids
cells
the smallest living units of structure and function
tissues
is a group of cells with similar structure and funtion there are 4 groups
the 4 groups of tissues are
epithelial tissues
connective tissues
muscles tissues
nerve tissues
epithilial tissues
cover or line the body surfaces,, examples are the outer layer of skin, and sweat glands.. internal epithelial tissues include the walls of capillaries and the kidney tubules
connective tissues
connect and support parts of the body, some transport or store materials,, examples are blood, bone carilage and adipose tissue
muscle tissue
specialized for contraction, brings about movement, skelatal muscles and the heart are examples,,smooth muscles are found in organs such as the urinary bladder and stomach.
nerve tissue
specialized to generate and transmit electrochemical impulses that regulate body functions the brain and the optic nerve are examples
organs
is a group of tissues precisely arranged so as to accomplish specific functions examples are kidneys liver lungs and stomach
organ systems
is a group of organs that all contribute to a particular function examples are urinary system, digestive system, and respiratory system
the 11 organ systems are
1. integumentary
2. skeletal
3. muscular
4. nervous
5. endocrine
6. circulatory
7. lympatic
8. respiratory
9. digestive
10. urinary
11. reproductive
integumentary
functions: is a brrier to pathogens and chemicals,,,, prevents excessice water loss
examples: skin, hair, subcutaeous tissue
skeletal
functions: supports the body, protects internal organs, provides a framework to be moved by muscles
examples: bones ligaments
muscular
fuctions: moves the skeleton, produces heat
examples: muscles, tendons
nervous
functions: interprets sensory information, regulates body functions such as movement by means of electrochemical impulses,
examples: brain, nerves, eyes, ears
endocrine
functions: regulates body functions by means of hormones,
examples: thyroid gland pituitary gland,
circulatory
functions: transports oxygen and nutrients to tissues and removes waste products
examples: heart blood and arteries
lymphatic
functions: returns tissue fluid to the blood, destroys pathogens that enter the body,
examples: spleen lymph nodes
respiratory
functions: exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and blood.
examples: lungs, trachea, larynx
digestive
functions: changes food to simple chemicals that can be absorbed and used by the body
examples: stomach, colon, liver
urinary
funtions: removes waste products from the blood, regulates volume and ph of blood
examples: kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra
reproductive
functions: produces eggs or sperm, in women provides a site for the developing embryo-fetus,
examples: female-ovaries, uterus, male-testes, prostate gland
homeostasis
reflects the ability of the body to maintain relative stability and to function normally dispite constant changes
negative feedback
which the body's response reverses the stimulus
positive feedback
the response to the stimulus does not stop or reverse the stimulus but insteadkeeps the sequence of eventsgoing
anatomic position
standing upright facing forward arms at the sides with palms forward and feet slightly apart
body cavities
dorsal cavity
ventral cavity
cranial cavity
spinal cavity
thoracic cavity
abdominal cavity
pelvic cavity
dorsal cavity
the dorsal cavity contains the central nervous system, and consists of the cranial cavity and the vertibral or spinal cavity
cranial cavity
the cranial cavity is formed by the skull and contains the brain
spinal cavity
is formed by the backbone(spine) and contains the spinal cord
meninges
the membrane that lines the spinal and cranial cavities and cover the brain and spinal cord
ventral cavity
consists of 2 compartments, the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity seperated by the diaphram
diaphram
is a large domeshaped respiratory muscles is the wall between the thoracic and abdominal cavities
thoracic cavity
contains the heart and lungs the membranes of this cavity are serous membrased called pleural membranes
plueral membranes
the membranes of the thoracic cavity and serous membranes, the parietal pleura lines the chest wall and the visceral pleura covers the lungs. the heart has its own set of serous membranes
pericardial membranes
the heart lining, the parietal pericardium lines the fibrous pericardial sac and the visceral pericardium covers the heart muscle
abdominal cavity
includes the liver stomach and intestines the membranes of the abdominal cavity are also serous membranes called the peritoneum and mesentery
peritoneum
is the membrane that lines the entire abdominal wall
mesentery
is the continuation of peritoneum folded around and covering the outer surfaces of the abdominal organs
pelvic cavity
is inferior to the abdominal cavity, contains the urinary bladder and reproductive organs such as the uterus in women and prastate gland in men
sectioned
cut
plane
is an imaginary flat surface that seperates two portions of the body or an organ
frontal (coronal) section
a plane from side to side seperates the body into front and back portions
sagittal section
a plane from fron to back separates the body into right and left portions a midsagittal section creates equal right and left halves
transverse section
a horizontal plane separates te body into upper and lower portions
cross-section
a plane perpendicular to the long axis of an organ, a crosssection of the small intestince would look like a circle with the cavity of the intestine in the center
longitudinal section
a plane along the axis of an organ,
quadrants
a transverse plane and a midsagittal plane that cross at the umbilicus divides the abdomen into 4 quadrants
nine areas,, 2 transverse planes and 2 sagittal planes divide the abdomen into 9 areas what are they?
right hypochondriac, epigastric region, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right iliac, hypogastric region, left iliac