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37 Cards in this Set

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Homeostasis
1. A state of good health maintained by the normal functioning of the organ systems
2. The body constantly responds to internal and external changes, yet remains stable
Homeostasis
1. A state of good health maintained by the normal functioning of the organ systems
2. The body constantly responds to internal and external changes, yet remains stable
Body Cavities and their membranes
Body Cavities and their membranes
Dorsal Cavity - lined with membranes called meninges; consists of the cranial and vertebral cavities.
a) Cranial Cavity contains the brain
b) Vertebral Cavity contains the spinal cord
Ventral Cavity - the diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities; the pelvic cavity is inferior to the abdominal cavity
a) Thoracic Cavity - contains the lungs and heart
1) Pleural membranes line the chest wall and cover the lungs
2) Pericardial membranes surround the heart
b) Abdominal Cavity - contains many organs including the stomach, liver, and intestines
1) The peritoneum lines the abdominal cavity; the mesentery covers the abdominal organs
c) Pelvic Cavity - contains the urinary bladder and reproductive organs
Planes and Sections - cutting the body or an organ in a specific way
Planes and Sections - cutting the body or an organ in a specific way
Frontal or Coronal - separates front and back parts
Sagittal - separates right and left parts
Transverse - separates upper and lower parts
Cross - a section perpendicular to the long axis
Longitudinal - a section along the long axis
The Study of BODY STRUCTURE, which includes Size, Shape, Composition, and perhaps even Coloration, is called _______.
ANATOMY
The Study of BODY STRUCTURE, which includes Size, Shape, Composition, and perhaps even Coloration, is called ANATOMY.
The Study of HOW the BODY FUNCTIONS is called __________.
The Study of HOW the BODY FUNCTIONS is called PHYSIOLOGY
MAINTENANCE OF LIFE OR SURVIVAL NEEDS
MAINTENANCE OF LIFE OR SURVIVAL NEEDS
A. WATER – this is the most abundant chemical in the body and it is required for many Metabolic Processes and provides the environment in which Most of them take place. Water also transports substances within the organism and is important in regulating body temperature.
B. FOOD – the Substances that provide the body with necessary Chemicals (Nutrients) in addition to Water. Food is used for Energy, supply the raw materials for building new living matter, and still others help regulate vital chemical reactions.
C. OXYGEN – It is required to release Energy from food substances. This energy, in turn, drives metabolic processes. Approximately 20% of the air be breathe is oxygen.
D. HEAT (BODY TEMPERATURE) - a form of energy, it is a product of Metabolic Reactions. Normal Body Temperature is around 37 C or 98 F. both low or high body temperatures are dangerous to the organism.
E. PRESSURE (ATMOSPHERIC) – Necessary for our Breathing.
PRINCPAL ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE HUMAN BODY
PRINCPAL ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE HUMAN BODY
1. INTEGUMENTARY
2. SKELETAL
3. MUSCULAR
4. CIRCULATORY OR CARDIOVASCULAR
5. LYMPHATIC-
6. NERVOUS
7. ENDOCRINE
8. RESPIRATORY
9. DIGESTIVE
10. URINARY OR EXCRETORY
11. IMMUNE SYSTEM
12. REPRODUCTIVE
SKELETAL System
SKELETAL
A. All the Bones of the body (206), their associated Cartilage, and the Joints of the Body.
B. Bones Support and Protect the body, assist in body movement, They also house cells that produce blood cells, and they store minerals.
MUSCULAR System
MUSCULAR
A. Specifically refers to Skeletal Muscle Tissue and Tendons.
B. Participates in bringing about movement, maintaining posture, and produces heat.
HOMEOSTASIS
HOMEOSTASIS
A person who is in good health is in a state of homeostasis. Homeostasis reflects the ability of the body to maintain relative stability and to function normally despite constant changes
always refers to the thigh
Femoral
a blood vessel that passes through the thigh, and the quadriceps
femoral artery
always refers to the lungs
Pulmonary always refers to the lungs
consists of the cranial cavity and the vertebral or spinal cavity
Dorsal Cavity- consists of the cranial cavity and the vertebral or spinal cavity
The __________cavity is formed by the skull and contains the brain
The cranial cavity is formed by the skull and contains the brain
The _________ cavity is formed by the backbone (spine) and contains the spinal cord
The spinal cavity is formed by the backbone (spine) and contains the spinal cord
The membranes that line these cavities and cover the organs of the central nervous system are called the __________
The membranes that line these cavities and cover the organs of the central nervous system are called the meninges.
____________ Cavity- consists of two compartments, the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity, which are separated by the diaphragm.
Ventral Cavity- consists of two compartments, the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity, which are separated by the diaphragm.
The ______ cavity may be considered a subdivision of the abdominal cavity, or as a separate cavity
The pelvic cavity may be considered a subdivision of the abdominal cavity, or as a separate cavity
Organs in the ________ cavity include the heart and lungs.
Organs in the thoracic cavity include the heart and lungs.
The membranes of the ________ cavity are serous membranes called the pleural membranes.
The membranes of the thoracic cavity are serous membranes called the pleural membranes.
The ________ pleura lines the chest wall
The parietal pleura lines the chest wall
the ________ pleura covers the lungs
the visceral pleura covers the lungs
The heart has its own set of serous membranes called the ___________ membranes.
The heart has its own set of serous membranes called the pericardial membranes.
The ________ pericardium lines the fibrous pericardial sac
The parietal pericardium lines the fibrous pericardial sac
the ________ pericardium covers the heart muscle
the visceral pericardium covers the heart muscle
Organs in the abdominal cavity include the L_____, s______, and i_________.
Organs in the abdominal cavity include the liver, stomach, and intestines.
The peritoneum is the membrane which lines the _________ wall
The peritoneum is the membrane which lines the abdominal wall
The pelvic cavity is ________ to the abdominal cavity
The pelvic cavity is inferior to the abdominal cavity
membrane folded around and covering the outer surfaces of the abdominal organs.
the mesentery is the membrane folded around and covering the outer surfaces of the abdominal organs.
Although the __________ does not line the pelvic cavity, it covers the free surfaces of several pelvic organs
Although the peritoneum does not line the pelvic cavity, it covers the free surfaces of several pelvic organs
Within the ______ cavity are the urinary bladder and reproductive organs such as the uterus in women and the prostate gland in men.
Within the pelvic cavity are the urinary bladder and reproductive organs such as the uterus in women and the prostate gland in men.
a plane from side to side separates the body into front and back portions
Frontal (Coronal) Section- a plane from side to side separates the body into front and back portions
- a plane from front to back separates the body into right and left portions.
Sagittal Section- a plane from front to back separates the body into right and left portions.
A ___________ section creates equal right and left halves.
A midsagittal section creates equal right and left halves.
- a horizontal plane separates the body into upper and lower portions
Transverse Section- a horizontal plane separates the body into upper and lower portions
___________________
A state of good health maintained by the normal functioning of the organ systems
2. The body constantly responds to internal and external changes, yet remains stable
Homeostasis
1. A state of good health maintained by the normal functioning of the organ systems
2. The body constantly responds to internal and external changes, yet remains stable