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COPY LINK: http://i108.photobucket.com/albums/n16/goldenchild_05/More%20stuff/11.jpg

What is this?
Yeast with budding forms and pseudohyphae
What is this?
COPY LINK:
http://i108.photobucket.com/albums/n16/goldenchild_05/More%20stuff/10.jpg
White blood cells
What is this?
COPY LINK:
http://i108.photobucket.com/albums/n16/goldenchild_05/More%20stuff/9.jpg
Transitional Epithilial cells
What is this?
Copy Link:
http://i108.photobucket.com/albums/n16/goldenchild_05/More%20stuff/8.jpg
Swollen Red blood cells
What is this?
Copy link:
http://i108.photobucket.com/albums/n16/goldenchild_05/More%20stuff/7.jpg
Squamous Epithelial cells
What is this?
Copy link: http://i108.photobucket.com/albums/n16/goldenchild_05/More%20stuff/6.jpg
Spermatozoa
What is this?
Copy link:
http://i108.photobucket.com/albums/n16/goldenchild_05/More%20stuff/5.jpg
Renal tubular eipithelial cells
What is this?
Copy link:
http://i108.photobucket.com/albums/n16/goldenchild_05/More%20stuff/4.jpg
Normal red blood cells
What is this?
Copy link:
http://i108.photobucket.com/albums/n16/goldenchild_05/More%20stuff/3.jpg
Crenated red blood cells
What is this?
Copy link:
http://i108.photobucket.com/albums/n16/goldenchild_05/More%20stuff/2.jpg
Clue cells
What is this?
Copy link:
http://i108.photobucket.com/albums/n16/goldenchild_05/More%20stuff/1.jpg
Bacteria
The purposes of examining urine microscopcially
1. Detect cellular elements, crytals, and casts in the urine that may be diagnotic for renal, urinary tract, and other diseases

2. Always check reults against physical and chemical test results

3. Microscopics are not done on all urines
How to prepare a urine sediment
1. Use a fresh or well mixed sample

2. Centrifuge 10-15mL for 5 min

3. Decant the supernatant

4. Place one drop on slide

5. Coverslip and look under low power (10x) on low light

6. Examine 10 fields

7. Change to a high power (40x)
Power of light used when viewing RBCs and WBCs
High power
Power of light used when viewing casts
Low power
Cellular elements include:
RBCs
WBCs
Epithelial cells
Bacteria
Yeast
Parasites
Mucus
Oval fat bodies
Sperm
Type of casts include
Hyaline
Cellular
Fatty
Granular
Waxy
Broad
Types of crystals
Amorphous
Calcium oxalate
Calcium phosphate
Calcium carbonate
Tyrosine
Bilirubin
Radiographic dyes
Uric acid
Drug
The physical description of red blood cells and what can affect its appearance
Colorless bi-concave/no nucleus

Environment of the urine
Hypotonic urine
Dilute (filled with water) causes swelling and lysis
Hypertonic urine
Concentrated/ causes CRENATION
What RBCs can be confused with
Yeast and oil droplets
The percentage of acetic acid that will lyse RBCs but not yeast, oil droplets, or WBCs
2% acetic acid and dipstick should be positive for blood
The abnormal range of RBCs found in the urine and what can occur as a result?
More than 2 per HPF

Glomerular damage
Trauma to kidney
Stones, infection, tumor
Hematuria form menstration
If the dipstick is negative for blood, but other test proof otherwise, what's going on?
Hemoglobin and myoglobin
Physical description of white blood cells
Larger than RBCs
Granular
Nucleus usually lobed
Most likely neutrophils
The percentage of acetic acid that will emphasized WBCs
2% of acetic acid
WBCs in hypotonic alkaline urine
The nuclear lobes may fuse and appear as one large lobe
The physical description of red blood cells and what can affect its appearance
Colorless bi-concave/no nucleus

Environment of the urine
Hypotonic urine
Dilute (filled with water) causes swelling and lysis
Hypertonic urine
Concentrated/ causes CRENATION
What RBCs can be confused with
Yeast and oil droplets
The percentage of acetic acid that will lyse RBCs but not yeast, oil droplets, or WBCs
2% acetic acid and dipstick should be positive for blood
The abnormal range of RBCs found in the urine and what can occur as a result?
More than 2 per HPF

Glomerular damage
Trauma to kidney
Stones, infection, tumor
Hematuria form menstration
If the dipstick is negative for blood, but other test proof otherwise, what's going on?
Hemoglobin and myoglobin
Physical description of white blood cells
Larger than RBCs
Granular
Nucleus usually lobed
Most likely neutrophils
The percentage of acetic acid that will emphasized WBCs
2% of acetic acid
WBCs in hypotonic alkaline urine
The nuclear lobes may fuse and appear as one large lobe
WBC physical description
Larger than RBC
Granular
Nucleus usually lobed
Neutrophil mostly
2% acetic acid does what to WBCs?
The nucleus is emphasized
What happens in a WBC hypotonic solutions?
The nuclear lobes may fuse and appear as one large lobe
Glitter cells
Cells swell and movement of cytoplasmic granules become evident
Normal range of WBCs found in urine
0-5/HPF
Increased numbers of WBCs (pyuria) indicate:
Infection (cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis)
Inflammation
Kidney transplant rejection
Presence of WBCs. What should the dipstick be positive for?
Leukocyte esterase
Epithelial cell definition
Cells lining the urinary tract from the proximal tubule to the urethra
Squamous, transitional, renal tubular
Squamous cells physical description
Large, flat, irregular
Lines lower portion of genitourinary tract
Edges may folded or rolled
Small central nucleus
Abundant cytoplasm
The presence of squamous cells results from
Normal sloughing
Clue cells
Squamous epi covered with bacteria, consistent with Gardnerella vaginitis (coccobacillus), usually seen from a vaginal swab
Transitional epithelial cells description
Round, pear-shaped
2-4x larger than WBCs
Centrally located nucleus
May have tail-like projection (caudate)
Lines upper urethra, bladder up to the pelvis of the kidney
Few passed normally
Seen in clumps
Increased in infection after catherization
Renal tubular epithelial cells description
Found in the nephrons
1-2x larger than a WBC
Single round, eccentrically placed nucleus
Lines tubules and collecting ducts
How much renal tubular epis are too much?
Greater than 2/HPF
The presence of Renal tubular epithelial cells indicates:
Tubular necrosis due to viral infection, exposure to drugs or toxins or renal graft rejection
Oval fat bodies
RTE cells filled with fat droplets. As lipids pass through a DAMAGED glomerular membrane, the renal cells absorb the fats
Presence of oval fat bodies indicates
Nephrotic syndrome seen with free floating fat droplets
Maltese cross formation indicates CHOLESTEROL
If you have RBCs in your pee, you have what?
Glomerular damage

Trauma to kidney

STones

Hematuria
Acute Glomerulernephritis is?
An infection with strains of group A beta strep
What you find in AGN?
RBCs and RBCs casts
Nephrotic syndrome caused by?
Circulatory disorders and complication of the glomerulernephritis
What's in neprotic syndrome?
Fatty casts, oval fat bodies, cholesterol crystals
Tubular Necrosis is caused by?
Insufficient blood supply
What's in tubular necrosis
Renal epis and casts, waxy or broad cast if there is renal failure
Types of UTIs
Pyelonephritis and cystitis
What's in peylonephritis?
WBCs WBC casts
Where is pyelonephritis?
Upper part of bladder
What's in cystitis?
WBs
What causes renal disorders?
malfunction Tubular reabsorption
PKU is accumilation of?
Phenylalanine and its metabolites
How do you screen PKU?
Guthrie Bacterial Inibition
What does PKU do?
Cause mental retardation
Tyrosyluria is an accumilation of what?
Tyrosine
What's in Tyrosyluria?
Tyrosine and leucine
Where does tyrosyluria do damage?
liver
Melanuria is an accumulation of what?
Melanin-producing cells
Alkaptonuria is an accumilation of what?
Homogentisic acid in the blood
What bad does alkaptonuria do?
Causes arthitis, liver and cardiac conditions
Porphyrin is the accumlilation of what?
Heme
When will you se hemosiderin inclusions
2-3 days after bad episodes of severe intrvascular hemolysis
Bad reasons for RBCs in your pee
Mentrual contamination
Glomerulonephritis
Trauma, tumor, or stones
Why WBCs shouldn't be in your pee?
Infection
Inflammation
Pyelonephritis
Transplant rejection
Squamous Epi why its bad for pee
Contamination
Why transitional epis are bad for your pee
Infection
Catherization
Renal tubular epis are bad cause?
Tubular necrosis
Glomerulonephritis (yeah, like RBCs0
Toxins or viral infections
Oval fatty patty bodies is bad cause?
Nephrotic syndrome
If you have bacteria, what do you look for on the dipstick?
Motility and nitrite positive on the dipstick
Yeast is seen in conjunction with what cells?
WBCs
Yeast is present in people with what?
Diabetes
Most commom yeast?
Candida
What makes crystals be so crystally?
Pee temperature
Pee concentration
Pee pH THE MOST IMPORTANT
The ACID crystals
Amorphous urates
Uric Acid
CALCIUM OXALATE
The BASIC crystals
Amorphous phosphates
Calcium phosphates
Triple phosphate
Calcium carbonate
Ammonium biurate
BAD ACID crystal
Tyrosine
Leucine
Cystine
Bilirubin
Cholesterol
Tyrosine is in what disease?
Liver yo dawg
Bilirubin is lyk wht color?
ICK!!!tear ICK!!!

yellow
What cholesterol cyrstals look lyk
IMMA KNOCK YOU CHORLETAHEAD SO IT LOOK LYK IZ ALL NOTCHED YOU CRZY!!!