Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/150

Click to flip

150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What viral structure is usually derived from the cell membrane of the host cell?
Envelope
What are the characteristics of human interferon Alpha?
1. Human species specific
2. Glycoprotein secreted by virally infected cell
3. Antiviral by preventing viral replication in uninfected cell
4. Prevents replication of any virus not just the virus that induced its formation
An antibody capable of neutralizing a virus and preventing infection is capable of doing so by:
Binding to cell receptor recognition sites on the virus and preventing attachment to a susceptible cell
What are true about viral surface proteins on a nonenveloped virus
1. They elicit antibodies that neutralizes infectivity of the virus
2. They determine the species specificity of the virus-cell interaction
3. They participate in the absorption of the virus to the surface of a cell in which the virus can replicate
4. They protect the viral genetic material when the virus is outside of the cell
Diagnosis of viral disease is usually accomplished on the basis of:
Clinical symptoms and medical history
The inactivation of viral infectivity by ether is the result of:
Disruption of cell-receptor recognition sites on viruses with a simple envelope
What is characteristic of the genetic recombination mechanism known as specialized transduction?
A temperate bacteriophage introduces bacterial genes into a bacterial cell
During gram staining procedure if you viewed a smear of gram + rods and gram - cocci under the microscope after the decolorization step with alcohol, what would you observe?
Rods purple
cocci colorless
What is an example of artificial passive acquired specific immunity?
Injection of pooled human gamma globulin
What type of immunoglobulin would you expect to find in mucosal secretion?
IgA
When would you expect to see a fall in the C3 component of the complement system without a corresponding fall in the C4 component in the serum?
Activation of the alternate pathway
Immunity to fungal infectious disease agents is primarily provided through:
The cell mediated immune response
What region of the immunoglobulin monomer binds antigen?
Fab
What term is synonymous with the term incomplete antigen?
Hapten
What body tissues provide the primary mechanism for exclusion of entrance of foreign material into the human body?
Skin and mucous membranes
What body tissues provide the primary mechanism for exclusion of entrance of foreign materials into the human body
Skin and mucous membranes
In the normal individual what type of acquired immunity would you expect to provide protection for the longest period?
Recovery from a childhood disease infection
What is responsible for attracting circulating PMN leucocytes to the inflammatory site?
Chemotactic substances
If you separated the peptide chains of an immunoglobulin monomer by reducing all the disulfide bonds, what would be true?
The normally Y-shaped molecule would take on a T-shape
What would you expect to find in the blood of a person exhibiting a fever that is not in the blood of a nonfebrile person?
Endogenous pyrogens
What type of immunoglobulin would you expect to find attached to mast cells?
IgE
In which of the following conditions would you expect to see a fall in both C3 and C4 components of the complement system?
Activation of the classical pathway
What type of immunoglobulin would you expect to find in mucosal secretions?
IgA
When would you expect to see a fall in the C3 component of the complecment system without a corresponding fall in the C4 component in the serum?
Activation of the alternate pathway
Immunity to fungal infectious disease agents is primarily provided through:
The cell mediated immune response
What region of the immunoglobulin monomer binds antigen?
Fab
Which of the following terms is synonymous with the term incomplete antigen?
Hapten
What body tissues provide the primary mechanism for exclusion of entrance of foreign materials into the human body?
Skin and mucous membranes
In the normal individual what type of acquired immunity would you expect to provide protection for the longest period?
Recovery from a childhood disease infection
Which of the following is responsible for attracting circulating PMN leucocytes to the inflammatory site?
Chemotactic substances
If you separated the peptide chains of an immunoglobulin monomer by reducing all the disulfide bonds, what would be true?
The normally Y-shaped molecule would take on a T-shape
What would you expect to find in the blood of a person exhibiting a fever that is not in the blood of a nonfebrile person?
Endogenous pyrogens

fever-producing subtances produced by the macrophages or other cells in response to infection or to events inducing cell-mediated immunity; included are interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor
What type of immunoglobulin would you expect to find attached to mast cells?
IgE
In what condition would you expect to see a fall in both C3 & C4 components of the complement system?
Activation of the classical pathway
Immunity to a viral infectious disease agent that enters the body through the mucous membrane is primarily provided through:
The formation of IgA immunoglobulins
What is produced during the inflammatory response reaction and is significantly responsible for the pain sensation at the site of a local inflammation?
Bradykinin
What region of the immunoglobulin monomer binds complement for activating the complement cascade?
Fc
An attenuated strain of virus would be used to produce what type of vaccine and would be unsafe to use in what group?
Live vaccine: immunocompromised patients
Adjuvants are:
Antigens that accentuate the immunologic response to a weak antigen introduced at the same time
What is responsible for attracting PMN's to an inflammatory site?
Chemotactic substances
If you separated the peptide chains of an immunoglobulin monomer by splitting the monomer in the hinge region, what would be true?
Two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment would be formed
When would antipyretic therapy be warranted?
62 year old woman with congestive HEART FAILURE and a fever of 101.5 F and urinary tract infection
An attenuated strain of virus would be used to produce what type of vaccine and would be unsafe to use in what group?
Live vaccine
Adjuvants are:
Antigens that accentuate the immunologic response to a weak antigen introduced at the same time
What is responsible for attracting PMNs to an inflammatory site?
Chemotactic substances
If you separate the peptide chains of an immunoglobulin monomer by splitting the monomer in the hinge region, what would be true?
Two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment would be formed
In what situation would antipyretic therapy be warranted?
62 year old woman with congestive heart failure and a fever of 101.5 F and urinary tract infection
Eight hours following an open heart surgery a patient has a WBC count of 11,800. What is a valid conclusion
This would not be an unusual finding and just reflects a systemic inflammatory leucocytosis due to surgical trauma
What is the chronologic order of the local inflammatory response reaction?
Vascular dilation and increased vascular permeability
Fibroblasts migrate into site
Hageman factor activated
Neutrophil exudation
Phagocytic cell accumulation
What is the most basic biochemical/biophysical data used to classify viruses into its viral family classification?
Whether they have DNA or RNA nucleic acid
Viruses that are released from their host cell by budding are usually what type of viruses?
Enveloped viruses
Oncogenic viruses have what in common?
The ability to insert oncogenic DNA sequences into the host cell genome causing cell transformation
Eight hours following an open heart surgery a patient has a WBC count of 11,800. What is a valid conclusion
This would not be an unusual finding and just reflects a systemic inflammatory leucocytosis due to surgical trauma
What is the chronologic order of the local inflammatory response reaction?
Vascular dilation and increased vascular permeability
Fibroblasts migrate into site
Hageman factor activated
Neutrophil exudation
Phagocytic cell accumulation
What is the most basic biochemical/biophysical data used to classify viruses into its viral family classification?
Whether they have DNA or RNA nucleic acid
Viruses that are released from their host cell by budding are usually what type of viruses?
Enveloped viruses
Oncogenic viruses have what in common?
The ability to insert onogenic DNA sequences into the host cell genome causing cell transformation
What is true of viruses that are capable of spreading from one infected cell to another susceptible cell in the host without passing through the blood or lymph?
Formation of circulating antibodies against them would not be protective
What determines whether a virus will infect a particular cell or not?
The presence of receptors on the host cell membrane to which the virus can attach
Peplomers such as hamagglutinin are found on what structure?
Viral envelope

peplomer-one of the knoblike projections, generally composed of glycoproteins, on the surface of the lipoprotein envelope of many enveloped viruses.
Teratogenic viruses produce what effect?
Congenital anomalies
Which of the following is not used to diagnose human viral infection?
Growth of the virus on selective/differential media in the laboratory
Invasion of a host cell by which of the following would produce the more immediate death of the host cell?
Lytic phage
The zones of lytic clearing of bacteria growing on agar to which a diluted virus suspension has been added are called what and this method is used for what?
Plaques: determine number of bacteriophage in suspension
Where would you find a provirus?
Integrated into the chromosome of an animal cell
What are inclusion bodies?
Viruses or viral products in a virally infected cell
Viremia would be detected by:
Observing viruses in the blood
Where would you find a provirus?
Integrated into the chromosome of an animal cell
What are inclusion bodies?
Viruses or viral in a virally infected cell
Viremia would be detected by:
Observing viruses in the blood
Adaptation of what bacterial cell structure is involved in conjugation between an F+ cell and an F- cell and what would you expect to be transferred in such
Pili: plasmid DNA including the fertility factor
Vascular changes associated with the initiation of the inflammatory response reaction at the site of tissue injury are triggered by which of the following substances?
Release of histamines from mast cells and basophils
Kinins such as bradykinin activated by active Hageman Factor
What are opsonins and what process are they involved in?
Immunoglobulins in the serum that improve immune adherence by white blood cells
What material would you expect to be the most immunogenic
Long-chain complex proteins
Antibody activity is primarily associated with what serum protein fraction?
gammaglobulin
Which of the WBC counts would indicate that the individual is leucopenic?
2000/mm3
What is more likely maximum titer of IgG after:
a. Primary contact with antigen
b. Secondary contact with antigen
Secondary contact with antigen
What is more likely the period of expected protective immunity by:
a. Passive immunization
b. Active immunication
Active immunization
What is more likely the size of immunoglobulin:
a. IgA in mucous secretions
b. IgG in serum
They are nearly equal
What is more likely the likelyhood of activation of C3 complement component by:
a. classical pathway
b. alternate pathway
classical and alternate pathway are both equally as likely to occur
What is the immunoglobulin class found in highest amount in gamma globulin fraction of serum?
IgG
What is the stage of viral replication during which you cannot find mature viral particle either inside or outside the infected cells?
Eclipse phase
What is a bacterial cell carrying a prophage?
Lysogenic bacterium
What type of WBC primarily involved in the initial stages of local inflammatory response reaction?
Neutrophil
What is the group most likely NOT to demonstrate a febrile response during a systemic bacterial infection?
Neonates
What is the component of the complement cascade activated by activating C1?
C4
What is the portion of the immunoglobulin monomer that binds and activates complement?
Fc of IgM monomer
What is the indication of an ongoing inflammatory response reaction in the body?
Increased neutrophil count and shift-to-left
What group is at greatest risk of febrile convulsive response?
Young children
What is the serum protein fraction that would most likely have IgM immunoglobulins at a higher level than IgG immunoglobulins?
Beta
What is material that when added to weakly immungenic material and injected into body will increase immunogenicity of immunogen
Adjuvant
When this virus is injected into the body the formation of antibodies against antigens A, B, C, and D are formed; however, only the antibodies against antigen A when mixed with infectious virions are shown to prevent infection. What is a valid conclusion?
Structure A is probably responsible for recognizing and binding the virus to the Ct-1 cell marker
What does a increased neutrophil count and shift-to-left represent?
It is an indication of an ongoing inflammatory response reaction in the body
what group is at greatest risk of febrile convulsive response?
Young children
What type of immunity is produced by injection of serum from immune individual into a nonimmune individual
Artificial passive immunity
What are 4 initiators of the inflammatory response reaction?
Chemical cell injury
Immunologic cell injury
Physical cell injury
Infectious disease agent cell injury
The stage of viral replication during which you cannot find mature viral particles either inside or outside the infected cells
Eclipse phase
A bacterial cell carrying a prophage:
Lysogenic bacterium
Type of WBC primarily involved in the initial stages of local inflammatory response reaction
Neutrophil
Group most likely NOT to demonstrate a febrile response during a systemic bacterial infection
Neonates
The component of the complement cascade activated by activated C1
C4
What antimicrobial agent has antiviral activity preventing the replication of certain viruses?
Acyclovir
Which of the WBC counts would indicate that the individual is leucopenic?
a. 2000/mm
b. 5000/mm
c. 8000/mm
D. 14000/mm
2000/mm

Leukopenia = reduction in the number of leukocytes in the blood below about 5000 per cu. mm. Types are named for the type of cell, such as agranulocytosis and neutropenia
Which period of expected protective immunity is greater, Passive immunity or Active immunity?
Active immunity has longer protective immunity
Which complement pathway has a higher chance of activating C3 complement component?
Both classical and alternate pathways have the same chance of activating C3
What is more likely:
A. Immunogen will produce an active immunity when injected into an animal
b. Immunoglobulin will produce an active immunity when injected into an animal
Immunogen will produce an active immunity when injected into an animal
What is more likely:
a. a virus with a complex envelope will be inactivated by ether
b. a naked virus will be inactivated by ether
they are equally likely
What is better the chance of isolating RNA from:
a. A picornavirus
b. A herpes virus
The chance of isolating RNA from a picornavirus
Viremia would be detected by:
Finding viruses in the blood
Adaptation of what bacterial cell structure in involved in conjugation between an F+ cell and an F- cell and what would you expect to be transferred in such a process?
Pili: plasmid DNA including the fertility factor
Vascular changes associated with the initiation of the inflammatory response reaction at the site of tissue injury are triggered by which of the following substances?
Release of histamines from mast cells and basophils
Kinins such as bradykinin activated by active hageman factor
What are opsonins and what process are they involved in?
Immunoglobulins in the serum that improve immune adherence by white blood cells

(Examples of opsonin molecules include:

antibodies: IgG and IgA
components of the complement system: C3b, C4b, and iC3b
Surfactant
Mannose-binding lectin (initiates the formation of C3b)
The most important are IgG and C3b.)
The release of neutrophil chemotactic factor (NCF) by activated WBC's at the site of a serious tissue injury would be responsible for what inflammatory response reaction?
?
What determines whether a virus will infect a particular cell or not?
The presence of receptors on the host cell membrane to which the cirus can attach
Peplomers such as hemagglutinin are found on what structure
Viral envelope
What is used to diagnose human viral infection?
Detection of antiviral antibodies in the serum
Identification of inclusion bodies in virally infected cells
Detection of the virus with the use of immunofluorescent antibodies
Symptoms of the disease in the body
Invasion of a host cell by what would produce the more immediate death of the host cell?
Lytic phage
The zones of lytic clearing of bacteria growing on agar to which a diluted virus suspension has been added are called what ad this method is used for what?
Plaques: determine number of bacteriophage in suspesion
Where would you find a provirus?
Integrated into the chromosome of an animal cell

provirus-the genome of an animal virus integrated (by crossing over) into the chromosome of the host cell, and thus replicated in all of its daughter cells. It can be activated, spontaneously or by induction, to produce a complete virus; it can also cause transformation of the host cell.
What are inclusion bodies?
Viruses or viral products in a virally infected cell
What is the order of events for the local inflammatory response reacting?
Hageman factor activated
Vascular dilation and increased vascular permeability
Neutrophil exudation
Phagocytic cell accumulation
Fibroblasts migrate into site
What is the most basic biochemical/biophysical data used to classify viruses into its viral family classification
Whether they have DNA or RNA nucleic acid
Viruses that are released from their host cell by budding are usually what type of viruses?
Enveloped viruses
Oncogenic viruses have what in common?
The ability to insert oncogenic DNA sequences into the host cell genome causing cell transformation
What is responsible for the "chills" that are experienced at the initiation of the fever response?
Constriction of surface blood vessels and redirection of blood from skin to deeper blood vessels
Immunity to a viral infectious disease agent that enters the body through the mucous membrane is primarily provided through:
The formation of IgA immunoglobulins
What is produced during the inflammatory response reaction and is significantly responsible for the pain sensation at the site of a local inflammation?
Bradykinin
An attenuated strain of virus would be used to produce what type of vaccine and would be unsafe to use in what group?
Capsular polysaccharide vaccine immunodeficient patient
What situation would antipyretic therapy be most important to carry out?
62 year old woman with congestive heart failure and a fever of 101.5 F and urinary tract infection
Eight hours following an open heart surgery a patient has a WBC count of 11,800. What conclusion is valid
This would not be an unusual finding and just reflects a systemic inflammatory leucocytosis due to surgical trauma
What would you expect to find in the blood of a person exhibiting a fever that is not in the blood of a nonfebrile person?
Endogenous pyrogens
In what condition would you expect to see a fall in both C3 and C4 components of the complement system?
Activation of the classical pathway
In the condition known as autoimmune hemolytic anemia the human body forms immunoglobulins that bind to antigens on the surface of the RBC membrane. When the immunoglobulins isolated from a patients serum suspected of having this condition are mixed with freshly harvested and washed RBC's from the patient, no hemolysis occurs. The technician running the test reports that the test is negative since the cells did not lyse; and therefore, the patient does not suffer from autoimmune hemolytic anemia. What is your assessment of his conclusion?
He is wrong because he can't tell if antibodies were present or not in the serum until complement is added to see if the RBC's lyse
What body tissues provide the primary mechanism for exclusion of entrance of foreign materials into the human body?
Skin and mucous membranes
In the normal individual what type of acquired immunity would you expect to provide protection for the longest period?
Recovery from a childhood disease infection
What is an example of artificial passive acquired specific immunity?
Injection of pooled human gamma globulin
What type of immunoglobulin would you expect to find in highest concentration in mucosal secretions?
IgA
What condition would you expect to see a fall in the C3 component of the complement system without a corresponding fall in the C4 component in the serum?
Activation of the alternate pathway
What complement component is directly activated by C42?
C3
Each of the following statements concerning viral capsid coat proteins on a nonenveloped virion is correct:
They may elicit antibodies that neutralizes infectivity of the virus
They determine the species specificity of the virus cell interaction
They participate in the absorption of the virus to the surface of a cell in which the virus can replicate
They protect the viral genetic material when the virus is outside of the cell
Where is an animal cell would you expect an enveloped RNA virus to be replicated and what is the most likely method of release of the virus from the infected cell?
Cytoplasm; budding
The inactivation of viral infectivity by ether is the result
of disruption of cell receptor recognition sites on viruses with a simple envelope
Which of the following is characteristic of the genetic recombination mechanism known as specialized transduction?
A temperate bacteriophage introduces bacterial genes into a bacterial cell
During gram staining procedure if you viewed a smear of gram + rods and gram negative cocci under the microscope after the decolorization step with alcohol, what would you observe?
Rods purple; cocci colorles
What viral structure is most directly produced by viral nucleic acid instructed formation of mRNA in the host cell?
Capsomere
What are the characteristics of human is human Interferon Alpha?
Human species specific
Glycoprotein secreted by virally infected cell
Antiviral by preventing viral replication in uninfected cell
Prevents replication of any virus not just the virus that induced its formation
An antibody capable of neutralizing a virus and preventing infection is capable of doing so by:
Binding to cell receptor recognition sites on the virus and preventing attachment to a susceptible cell
What type of immunity produced by injection of serum from immune individual into a nonimmune individual?
Artificial passive immunity
What are the initiators of the inflammatory response reaction?
Chemical cell injury
Immunological cell injury
Physical cell injury
Infectious disease agent cell injury
The lowest body temperature at which you expect loss of control of body temperature
112 F