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66 Cards in this Set

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A dorsal divation of the thoracic spine usually the result of a disease (lung disease, Paget's disease) or a congenital problem
ventral devation of the spine
A cartilaginous tumour growing from the interior of a bone/proliferation of cartilage at heterotopic foci
A benign cartilaginous neoplasm that consists of a pedicle of normal bone with a rim of proliferative cartilage cells, often occurs near the ends of long bones, multiple osteochondromas are inherited and referred to as hereditary multiple exostoses/proliferation of cartilage at heterotopic foci
A condition marked by the presence of multiple osteochondromas
<embryology, orthopaedics> A disturbance in the development of cartilage, primarily the long bones. This can result in arrested growth and dwarfism. /bulldog calf
epiphyseal dysplasia
an inherited defect of dogs characterized by very short limbs and early degenerative arthropathy. called also chondrodystrophia fetalis and pseudochondroplastic dysplasia of miniture poodles. a similar histological lesion occurs in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia in beagles
metaphyseal dysplasia
also known as: craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal recessive, failure of modeling of cylindrical bones, Erlenmeyer flask appearance of metaepiphyses
The formation of abnormally dense bone, as opposed to osteoporosis. Occurs in rats, cattle, and rabbits. similar lesions occur in utero caused by BVDV
A condition which results from the insufficient production of growth hormone by the pituitary gland. Dwarfism is characterised by abnormally short stature with normal body proportions
periosteal hyperostosis
Hypertrophy of bone, from the periosteum exostosis.
osteogenesis imperfecta
A group of genetic diseases of the bones. Divided into four types all result in brittle and frail bones.

Multiple broken bones are common. Other features include deafness, white of the eyes appear bluish, kyphosis, kyphoscoliosis, tooth abnormalities, chest deformities and short stature. There is no specific treatment. inherited defect in type 1 collagen decreased osteonectin and proteoglycans in some forms
Any of a group of lysosomal storage diseases that have in common a disorder in metabolism of mucopolysaccharides, as evidenced by excretion of various mucopolysaccharides in urine and infiltration of these substances into connective tissue, with resulting various defects of bone, cartilage, and connective tissue. accumulation of GAG vaculated cells. facial dysmorphism, arthropathy
Any disease that affects joints
A reduction in the amount of bone mass, leading to fractures after minimal trauma.
1. Decreased calcification or density of bone; a descriptive term applicable to all skeletal systems in which such a condition is noted; carries no implication about causality.

2. Reduced bone mass due to inadequate osteoid synthesis.
Disease caused by Vitamin C deficiency. The effects are due to a failure of the hydroxylation of proline residues in collagen synthesis and the consequent failure of fibroblasts to produce mature collagen.
A condition caused by deficiency of vitamin D, especially in infancy and childhood, with disturbance of normal ossification.

The disease is marked by bending and distortion of the bones under muscular action, by the formation of nodular enlargements on the ends and sides of the bones, by delayed closure of the fontanelles, pain in the muscles and sweating of the head. Vitamin D and sunlight together with an adequate diet are curative, provided that the parathyroid glands are functioning properly.
A condition marked by softening of the bones (due to impaired mineralisation, with excess accumulation of osteoid), with pain, tenderness, muscular weakness, anorexia and loss of weight, resulting from deficiency of vitamin D and calcium
primary hyperparathyroidism
primary hyperparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism due to neoplasms or idiopathic hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands.
secondary hyperparathyroidism
secondary hyperparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism that arises as a result of disordered metabolism producing hypocalcaemia, as in chronic uraemia due to renal disease, malabsorption, rickets, or osteomalacia; associated with hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands.renal or nurtritional
nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
a disease of horses, pigs, goats, dogs, cats, and rarely cattle. It is most commonly caused by an excessive dietary intake of phosphorus in the absence of adequte calcium, which in the horse is likely to be the result of a diet mainly of grain and in dogs and cats one predominantly of meat, but it may also result from other dietary causes. in most species there is swelling of the mandbile and maxillae which is most marked in horses, loosening of teeth, shifting lameness, and particulary in dogs and cats, weight bearing skeletal deformitites (angle wings) and folding or compression fractures. called also miller disease, bran disease, bighead, siamese cat disease, paper-bone disease
renal secondary hyperparathyroidism
caused by cronic renal dysfunction, mostly in dogs, sometimes cats, in which there is secondary hyperparathyroidism, caused by retention of phosphates. There is deminerlization of bones, moastly mandible and maxillae, with loose teeth and facial swelling. called also rubber jaw, renal rickets, renal osteitis fibrosa
fibrous osteodystrophy
osteitis fibrosa
<radiology> Secondary to hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia followed by increased parathormone production, subperiosteal bone resorption, radial aspect of phalanges, distal clavicle, medial tibia plateau, medial humerus neck, distal ulna, phalangeal tufts, lamina dura of teeth, subchondral and subligamentous bone resorption, widening of symphysis pubis, SI joints, resorption of ischial tuberosity, spotty deossification of the skull (wooly, salt and pepper), metaphyseal fractures, slipped epiphyses, brown tumour and chondocalcinosis, more common in primary hyperparathyroidism
Hypertrophy of bone, exostosis.
<dentistry, orthopaedics> A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterised by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration.

Excessive fluoride intake from drinking water with fluoride concentration more than 8 ppm (several cases in Spain), agricultural or industrial contamination (Texas, Arizona).

Clinical features: mottling of teeth enamel.

X-ray findings: thickening of bony trabecular pattern, best seen in vertebral bodies, progresses to dense uniform symmetrical sclerosis that obliterates bony architectural landmarks, marked periosteal proliferation, ligamentous calcification (especially sacrospinous, sacrotuberous ligaments)
naturally occurring fluorophosphate of calcium
Inflammation of bone caused by a pyogenic organism. It may remain localised or may spread through the bone to involve the marrow, cortex, cancellous tissue and periosteum
Inflammation of bone
Inflammation of the periosteum
A piece of dead bone that has become separated during the process of necrosis from the sound bone.

Sequelae of osteomyelitis, sequestrum, necrotic bone, often denser than surroundings, may be resorbed, discharged through a sinus tract, or persist as a focus of continued infection, involucrum, bone formed beneath elevated periosteum, surrounds sequestrum
osteoclast activating factor
A lymphokine that stimulates bone resorption and inhibits bone-collagen synthesis.
Inflammation of the vertebrae
degenerative joint disease
A form of arthritis that results in the destruction of the articular cartilage that line the joints. Seen predominately in the larger weight bearing joints of the hips, knees
subchondral sclerosis
(aka eburnation) is defined as abnormal increased density adjacent to an articulation-radiology
calcification of muscle attacment or ligamentat the poit of its insertion in bone
Fusion of bones across a joint. Complication of chronic inflammation
Noninflammatory degenerative joint disease occurring chiefly in older animals, characterised by degeneration of the articular cartilage, hypertrophy of bone at the margins and changes in the synovial membrane. It is accompanied by pain and stiffness, particularly after prolonged activity.
eburnation of bone
A condition of bone cartilage occurring in certain diseases of these tissues, in which they acquire an unnatural density, and come to resemble ivory
joint mice
Ossicles within joint space, seen in synovial osteochondromatosis
Degeneration followed by reossification of one or more ossification centres
periarticular osteophytes
bony excrescences around the periphery of a joint
spondylosis deformans
chronic Ankylosis of the vertebra
osteochondritis dissecans
A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies.
An inflammatory condition that affects joints. Can be infective, autoimmune, traumatic in origin.
rheumatoid arthritis
Chronic inflammatory disease in which there is destruction of joints. Considered by some to be an autoimmune disorder in which immune complexes are formed in joints and excite an inflammatory response (complex mediated hypersensitivity).

Cell-mediated (type IV) hypersensitivity also occurs and macrophages accumulate. This in turn leads to the destruction of the synovial lining
Inflammation of the tissues around a joint
Inflammation of a tendon sheath
1. <pathology, rheumatology> Vascularised granulation tissue rich in fibroblasts, lymphocytes and macrophages, derived from synovial tissue, overgrows the bearing surface of the joint in rheumatoid arthritis and is associated with the breakdown of the articular surface.

2. <ophthalmology> Granulation tisuue that invades the cornea from the conjunctiva in response to inflammation.
Inflammation of a bursa, occasionally accompanied by a calcific deposit in the underlying supraspinatus tendon
septic arthritis
A pus-forming bacterial infection of a joint space.

Symptoms include a hot, swollen, red joint, that is very tender to any attempted movement.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion and is characterised by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac.

Synovitis is qualified as fibrinous, gonorrhoeal, hyperplastic, lipomatous, metritic, puerperal, rheumatic, scarlatinal, syphilitic, tuberculous, urethral, etc.
Inflammation of a ligament.
zenker's degeneration
A form of severe hyaline degeneration or necrosis in skeletal muscle, occurring in severe infections.

Synonym: waxy degeneration, Zenker's necrosis
toxic myopathy
toxic disease of mucsle
muscular dystrophy
group of diseases characterised by progressive degeneration and/or loss of muscle fibres without nervous system involvement. All or nearly all of them have a hereditary origin but details of the type of genetic defect and of the prognosis for the disease vary from type to type. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy) is the most common form. It is due to a sex-linked recessive allele and this is expressed as an absence of the protein dystrophin, the disease in boys shows extensive but insufficient muscle fibre reformation from satellite cells.
The destruction of skeletal muscle cells. Often the result of electrical injury, alcoholism, injury (or laying in one position for an extended period of time), drug side effects or toxins.
A benign tumour derived from striated muscle. It is extremely rare, generally occurring in the tongue, neck muscles, larynx, uvula, nasal cavity, axilla, vulva, and heart. These tumours are treated by simple excision
Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint
malignant edema
an acute infection of wounds caused by clostridium
Malignant tumour (sarcoma) derived from striated muscle
myofibrillar hypoplasia
splayleg-a congenital defect of the hindlimbs of piglets that prevents standing. The piglet is in sternal recumbency with hindlimbs splayed and can only make swimming movements in attempts to rise. some are crushed by the sow. also occurs in rabbits
Inflammation of a voluntary muscle
myasthemia gravis
The characteristic feature of the disease is easy fatigue of certain voluntary muscle groups on repeated use. Muscles of the face or upper trunk are especially likely to be affected. In most and perhaps all cases due to the development of autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor in neuromuscular junctions. Immunisation of mice or rats with this receptor protein leads to a disease with the features of myasthenia.
An inflammatory condition of muscle of unknown aetiology. Muscle pain and weakness are common symptoms of this condition. When associated with a skin rash the condition is referred to as dermatomyositis.
Tearing of a muscle.