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20 Cards in this Set

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How much does a normal kidney weigh?
120 to 150 grams each.
The visceral epithelial cells of Bowman's space = what?
The podocytes.
What is the function of the mesangium of the kidney?
To anchor the capillary loops of the glomerular tufts in place.

Also have contractile functions to help control the size/pressures of the capillary loops.

Also antigen presentation, phagocytosis, secretion of inflammatory mediators/cytokines
c/c the cell lining of the arterioles and the tubules of the kidney
The arterioles are lined with flattened endothelium, while the arterioles are lined with epithelium.
What types of cells line the proximal tubule?
Cuboidal epithelial cells with a brush border.
What types of cells line the distal tubules?
Cells with no brush border and have a flatter cuboidal lining.
What stain is used to visualize basement membranes?
Silver stain
Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain
The endothelium of the glomerular capillaries is ____________.
The endothelium of the glomerular capillaries is FENESTRATED.
The glomerular basement membrane has what charge?
Negative
What types of particles are able to be filtered in the kidney?
Small, positively charged molecules
In a normal kidney, what should the interstitium of the kidney look like?
It should be negligible - there should be hardly any space between tubules.
Approximately how many nephrons does a kidney have?
About 2,000,000.
What are the three main indications to get a kidney biopsy?
1. Blood in the urine.
2. Protein in the urine.
3. Elevated serum creatinine.
Trichrome stains show what on a kidney biopsy?
Presence of fibrosis.
What are two substances that are metabolized in the kidney?
Lactate
Insulin
What are the symptoms associated with uremia?
Itching
Sleep disturbance
Somnolence
Anorexia
Nausea
Anemia
Neuropathy
c/c pre-renal disease and post-renal disease.
Pre-renal: reduced blood flow to the kidneys.

Post-renal: renal parenchymal diseases, obstruction of outflow from the kidneys.
What is a normal amout of protein excreted in the urine each day?

What do elevated values point to?
< 200 mg/day.

> 2 g/day = glomerular disease
> 3.5 g/day = nephrotic syndrome
Renal parenchymal disease that produce hematuria are called what?
Nephritic.
Hematuria, hypertension, edema, reduced kidney function = ?
The nephritic syndrome.