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100 Cards in this Set

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Basophilic nuclear remnants found in RBCs in pts w/ asplenia?
howell jolly bodies
Hypoplastic lungs+absent kidneys+oligohydramnios
potter syndrome
What is the cause of potter syndrome?
oligohydramnios
Acid fast bacilli in a patients sputum=
active TB
Drugs used in RA and can cause reactivation TB?
TNF alpha inhibitors...adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab
measure of NEW cases diagnosed in a given period of time?
incidence
Measur of total cases at a particular point in time?
prevalence
Any tx that prolongs life but does not cure the disease has what affect on prevalance and incidence?
increases prevalance....no change in incidence
What is the relationship between prevalance and incidence?
prev=incidence X disease duration
Increases vagal tone and can be used to abolish palpitations?
valsalva maneuver
Muscle used to increase intraabdominal and intrathoracic pressure during the valsalva maneuver?
rectus abdominis muscle
These are carrier proteins for oxytocin and vasopressin?
neurophysins
DO resulting in insufficient release of ADH?
diabetes insipidus
What hormone decreases the production of all GI hormones?
somatostatin
Pancreatic islet cell tumor that causes excess VIP secretion and excess diarrhea?
VIPoma
GI hormone that inhibits gastric proton secretion and stimulates pancreatic bicarb and chloride secretion?
VIP
Rx for secretory diarrhea caused by a VIPoma?
somatostatin
airway trapping+decreased lung elastic recoil?
COPD
name the four lung volumes?
IRV, TV, ERV, RV
inspiratory capacity=
IRV+TV
Functional residual capacity=
ERV+RV
Vital capacity=
IRV+TV+ERV...everything but the RV
Total lung capacity=
IRV+TV+ERV+RV
What lung parameters are increased in obstructive lung disease?
TLC, RV, FRC
Enzymes that use Thiamine-B1 as a cofactor?
pyruvate dh, alpha ketoglutarate dh, and transketolase
How can thiamine deficiency be diagnosed?
increases in RBC transketolase activity after giving thiamine
Blocks the presynaptic exocytosis of acetylcholine vesicles?
clostridium botulinum toxin
Multinucleated giant cells
HSV or VZV
what are the normal arterial blood gas values for ph, PaO2, PaCO2, and HCO3-?
PH-->7.35-7.45
PaO2--> 80-95 mmhg
Pa CO2--> 35-45 mmhg
HCO3---> 22-26 meq/L
Drugs that are best in contollling the inflammatory component of asthma over the long term?
glucocorticoids....fluticasone
Overdose of this class of drug can cause anticholinergic sxs...mimicking atropine toxicity?
TCAs...amitryptyline
In the lac operon, the repressor protein binds to what site?
the operon
Mutations in what two parts of the Lac operon would cause constitutive expression of the structural genes?
mutations in the operator and repressor protein
too much of this hormone can cause endometrial hyperplasia and abnormal uterine bleeding?
estrogen
estrogen secreting primary ovarian tumors that cause endometrial hyperplasia and uterine bleeding?
granulosa cell tumors
Malignant ovarian tumor of germ cell origin...ovarian equivalent of testicular seminoma?
dysgerminoma
What is the sequence to understanding hypoxemia?
FiO2--->PAO2--->PaO2-->SaO2
Whay oxygen parameter is decreased in carbon monoxide poisoning?
SaO2 is decreased
What is the early sign of carbon monoxide poisoning?
Headache
classical finding in methemoglobinemia?
chocolate colored blood
Hallmark of reversible cell injury?
cellular swelling
Hallmark of irreversible cell injury?
membrane damage
Hallmark of cell death?
loss of the nucleus
Death of large groups of cells followed by acute inflammation?
necrosis
Caseous necrosis is a characteristic finding of what types of infections?
TB or fungal infections
calcification of damaged tissue with normal calcium-phosphate levels?
dystrophic calcification
calcification of normal tissue with elevated serum calcium and phosphate levels?
metastatic calcification
necrotic damage to blood vessel walls?
fibrinoid necrosis
elevated BP + proteinuria in pregnancy
pre-eclampsia
cell death not followed by inflammation
apoptosis
enzymes that mediate apoptosis?
caspases
mediator of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis that activates caspases?
cytochrome C
How do T cells undergo apoptosis during negative thymic selection in the thymus?
FAS ligand binds the FAS death receptor (CD95) activating capases
What chemicals are released from CD8+ T cells that cause apoptosis of virally infected cells?
perforins and granzymes
Name the 3 free radicals generated during oxidative phosporylation?
superoxide-->hydrogen peroxide--->hydroxyl radical
Name the enzymes that handle superoxide---->hydrogen peroxide--->hydroxyl radical?
(1) SOD
(2) catalase
(3) glutathione reductase
What is the histological consequence of carbon tetrachloride?
fatty change in the liver
What is the mechanism of fatty liver change seen with exposure to carbon tetrachloride?
decreased apolipoprotein synthesis
Multiple misfolded proteins that deposit in the extracellular space causing damage to tissues?
amyloid
protein derived from Ig light chain and is associated with plasma cell dyscrasias?
AL amyloid
The most common organ involved in systemic amyloidosis?
the kidney
A beta amyloid is found in AD and is derived from what protein expressed on chromosome 21?
Beta amyloid precursor protein
TLR of MACS that recognizes LPS ( A PAMP) on the outer membrane of gram - bacteria?
CD 14
What transcription factor is activated by TLRs?
NFKB
Two factors that mediate pain?
PGE2 and bradykinin
These two factors upregulate E Selectin on endothelial cells?
IL 1 and TNF
Two components inside weibel palade bodies of endothelial cells?
VWF and P selectin
Selectins bind this molecule on leukocytes during rolling?
sialyl lewis X
LAD is a AR condition resulting in a defect of what molecule on leukocytes?
integrins(CD18 subunit)
Impaired phagolysosome formation + protein trafficking defect
Chediak Higashi Syndrome
Name the pathway to form bleach used in O2 dependant killing and the enzymes of each step?
O2->superoxide->hydrogen peroxide->bleach

(1) NADPH
(2) SOD
(3) myeloperoxidase
defective conversion of hydrogen peroxide to bleach w/ a normal NBT test?
myeloperoxidase deficiency
Defining feature of a granuloma?
epitheliod histiocyte
Histologic hallmark of chron's disease and ulcerative colitis?
chron's-> noncaseating granulomas

UC-> crypt abcesses
Steps involved in granuloma formation?
(1) MACS present ag via MHC II to CD4+ T cells
(2) MACS secrete IL12-->CD4 differentiate into TH1 cells
(3) TH1 cells secrete TNF alpha--> MACS turn into epitheliod histiocytes
Failure of the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches to form due to a 22q11 deletion?
digeorge syndrome
Lack of thymus+hypocalcemia+abnormalities of the heart, great vessels and face
digeorge syndrome
Due to mutated CD40L on helper T cells= inability to class switch?
Hyper IgM syndrome
C5-C9 deficiencies
neisseria infections
MC injury associated SLE?
diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis
Characteristic Ab in drug induced lupus?
anti-histone abs
Common drugs that cause drug induced lupus?
hydralazine, procainamide, and isoniazid
presents with dry eyes+ dry mouth+ recurrent cavities
Sjogren syndrome
What abs are present in Sjogren syndrome?
anti-ribonucleoprotein abs
Complication of sjogren's syndrome where pts present with unilateral enlargement of the parotid gland?
B cell (marginal cell) lymphoma
Anti-DNA topoisomerase I ab
scleroderma
What is CREST syndrome?
(1) calcinosis/anti-centromere ab
(2)raynaud phenomenon
(3)esophageal dysmotility
(4) sclerodactyly
(5) telangiectasias of the skin
What mineral is required for collagenase to replace type III w/ type I collagen to form a scar?
zinc
A keloid contains an excess of what tyoe of collagen?
type III
The only bacteria with a capsule made of protein?
bacillus anthracis
Part of the GI tract ALWAYS involved in hirschprung disease?
rectum
What are the clinical signs of cardiac tamponade?
hyotension+Tachy+elevated CVP that produces JVD
meningiococcal vaccine contains what component of the org?
polysacharide capsule
The two most important factors for osteoclastic differentiation?
M-csf and RANKL
Common locations where the ulner nerve can be damaged resulting in a "claw hand" deformity of the 4th and 5th digits?
medial epicondyl of the humerus and the hook of the hamate
Responsible for the variability seen in mitochondrial disease where some cells have more damaged mtDNA than others?
heteroplasmy
Selective inactivation of paternal or maternal alleles?
genetic imprinting
Refers to the increase in severity of genetic disorders in susequent generations
anticipation
How does lithium cause diabetes insipidus?
blocks ADH receptors in the collecting ducts
What are the hormones that cause serine kinase to P serine-threonine residues leading to insulin resistance?
TNF alpha, catecholamines, glucocorticoids, and glucagon