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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Neurofibromatosis type 1 has what type of inheritance?
autosomal dominant
cafe-au-lait spots, neurofibromas, and lisch nudules?
neurofibromatosis type 1
Small intestinal and colonic atresias occur due to...?
vascular obstructions in utero
"Apple peel" atresias are associated with...?
obstruction of the SMA
Bile acid binding resins(cholestyramine) are unique among hypolipidemia agents in that they....?
increase blood TGs
Formula for positive predictive value?
a/a+b
Formula for NPV?
d/d+c
What two epidemiological parameters vary as the prevalance of a disease changes?
PPV and NPV
Nerve responsible for extension of hand...damage causes wrist drop?
radial nerve
Damage to this nerve in the shoulder region affects opposition of the thumb?
median nerve
Damage to what nerve would affect thumb adduction?
ulnar nerve
Mitochondrial enzyme that activates caspases and causes cell death through intrinsic pathway apoptosis?
cytochrome C
Org associated with gas gangrene and late onset food poisoning that can cause a transient watery diarrhea?
clostridium perfringens
Orgs associated with early onset food poisoning caused by performed toxins?
(1) staph aureus
(2) Bacillus cereus
The spores of this gram + bacillus are abundant in soil?
clostridium Perfringens
The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is due to a deficiency in.....?
21 hydroxylase
21 hydroxylase converts what to reactions to make mineralcorticoids and glucocorticoids?
(1) progesterone--> 11 deoxycorticosterone

(2) 17 OH progesterone--> 11 deoxycortisol
With undescended testes, the seminiferous tubules will be affected. What hormone will likely be decreased in this pt?
inhibin
MCC of hypocalcemia?
primary hypoparathyroidism
What is a common cause of primary hypoparathyroidism?
thyroid surgery
Classic lab finding in pts with thalessemia?
hypochromic, microcytic anemia
What type of virus is hepatitis E?
non-enveloped single stranded RNA virus
Most concerning feature of hepatitis E infection?
high mortality rate seen in infected pregnant woman
What hepatitis viruses are transmitted by the fecal-oral route?
hep a and e
Hep E causes an acute illness and is not associated with.....?
chronic infection
Current alzheimer disease treatments?
(1) cholinesterase inhibitors-->donepezil

(2) antioxidants--> alpha tocopherol

(3)NMDA receptor antagonists--> memantine
HIT is treated with....?
direct thrombin inhibitors
Direct thrombin inhibitors used to rx HIT?
(1) argatroban
(2) hirudin
(3) lepirudin
Warfarin MOA?
blocks vit k dependant glutamate residue carboxylation
Inhibit Plt aggregation by inhibiting PDE activity and increasing Camp?
dipyridamole and cilostazol
Seen in pap smear specimens from woman with bacterial vaginosis caused by gardnerella vaginalis?
clue cells
Hallmark of HPV infection?
koilocytosis
These are immature squamous cells with a dense, irregularly staining cytoplasm and perinuclear clearing-assoc with HPV infection?
koilocyte
Common football injury with force to the lateral side of the knee causes damage to the....?
(1)medial collateral ligament
(2)anterior cruciate ligament
(3)lateral meniscus
Autoantibodies to hemidesmosomes?
bullous pemphigoid
Autoantibodies to desmosomes?
pemphigus vulgaris
Many noncaseating granulomas in organs and tissues in a young black woman w. bilateral hilar lymphoadenopathy?
sarcoidosis
Org that causes pharyngitis and pseudomembrane in the throat?
corynebacterium diptheriae
Immunization with diptheria toxoid induces production of...?
circulating IgG against the exotoxin B subunit
What subunit of the corynebacteriia diptheriae AB toxin is the binding subunit?
the B subunit
What is the formula for a 95% confidence interval?
CI=mean+or-Z*SEM

note:
sem=standard error of the mean=SD/square root n

Z=z score=1.96
For a 99% confidence interval, the z score is....?
z=2.58
characterized by sxs of schizophrenia in the presence of mood sxs?
schozoaffective disorder
Posterior neck tumors that are apparent at birth in infants w/ turner's sydrome?
cystic hygromas
Associated with swelling of the hands and feet (lymphedema) and posterior neck cystic hygromas at birth?
turner's syndrome
Characteristic appearance of turner's syndrome in the adult?
(1) webbed neck
(2) low hairline
(3) shield chest
(4) short stature
round face+cat like cry+ microcephaly
cri du chat syndrome
short stature+primary ammenorrhea+coarctation of the aorta
tuner's syndrome
MC site of gastric tumors?
lesser curvature of the stomach
what arteries run along the lesser curvature of the stomach and are likely to be damaged by ulcers?
L and R gastric arteries
Presents with shearing or tearing chest pain that radiates to the back?
aortic dissection
Type of microcytic anemia where RBCs are unable to incorporate iron into heme?
sideroblastic anemia
Agents used to rx acute asthma exacerbations?
beta 2 adrenergic agonists
Ace inhibitor angiodema is due to an increase in what molecule?
bradykinin
dephosphorylates glycogen synthase promoting glycogen formation?
protein phosphatase
This enzyme is stimulated by insulin and results in glycogen formation and inhibition of gluconeogenesis?
protein phosphatase
Used to analyze mRNA?
northern blot
used to analyze DNA sequences?
southern blot
Strongly associated with anal and cervical squamous cell carcinoma?
HPV 16, 18, and 31
Another name for phosphatidylcholine?
lecithin
commonly used to measure fetal lung maturity in the amniotic fluid?
lecithin/sphengomyelin ratio
What happens to albumin CONCENTRATIONS in a pregnant woman from early gestation to term?
decrease by 50%
What receptors are bound by the HIV envelope protein Gp 120 and allow the virus to enter cells?
CD4 and CCR5
A deletion in both alleles that code for this receptor results in resistance to HIV infection?
CCR5
CA drugs that are nephrotoxic and cause acoustic nerve damage?
cisplatin and carboplatin
CA drug that causes peripheral neuropathy?
vincristine
CA drug that causes pulmonary fibrosis?
bleomycin
CA drug that causes cardiotoxicity?
doxorubicin
CA drug that causes hemorrhagic cystitis
cyclophosphomide
What drugs inhibit dihydrofolate reductase?
trimethoprim, methotrexate, and pyrimethamine
Obligate intracellular bugs that cannot make their own ATP?
rickettsia and chlamydia
Facultative intracellular bugs?
"Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY"
salmonella, neisseria, brucella, mycobacterium, listeria, francisella, legionella, yersina pestis