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159 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
will not cause osmosis
isotonic solution
cell will not shrink/swell
isotonic solution
randomness in a system
entropy
the entropy of universe tends to increase
second law of thermodynamics
most abundant immunoglobin
IgG
immunoglobin synthesized by plasma cells in mucous membrane of GI
IgA
Type I hypersensitivity
IgE
immunoglobin that crosses placenta
IgG
immunoglobins synthesized where
plasma cells in
spleen
lymph nodes
largest immunoglobin
IgM
activator of complement system
IgM
fxn unknown
IgD
first immunoglobin produced to infection
IgM
intracellular matrix of bone =
1-hyaluronic acid
2-chondroitin sulfate
weak bonds
hydrogen
ionic
van der waal
total body water =
2/3 intercell fluid

1/3 extracell fluid
extracell fluid =
1/4 plasma

3/4 interstitial fluid
intracellular fluid contains
K
Mg
largest amount of body water
intracell fluid
intracell/extracell are similar in
total osmotic pressure
plasma and intracellular alike except
lower concentratin of proteins
osmolality
in water

(osmotic pressure)
osmolarity
in solution
same chemical properties
different weights
isotopes
which AA synthesized in liver
nonessential AA
protein metabolism (in liver)
1-deamination of AA
2-form urea
3-formation of plasma proteins
bile formation
protein metabolism
steroid conjugation
cho storage
detoxification
regulate sugar level
liver fxn
glucokinase only found
in liver
glucose > glucose 6-p in liver
glucokinase
glucogenesis in liver
glucokinase
hexokinase for what
glucogenesis
take up extra glucose
1-skeletal muscle
2-brain
fasting leads to
decreased liver glycogen
when does liver release glucose
1-muscular activity
2-interval btw meals
glucose is required for
brain
RBC
RBC oxidize glucose >
pyruvate
lactate
urea produced by
hydrolysis of arginine
two nitrogen atoms incorporated into urea
1-ammonia
2-aspartate
HMG CoA reductase
regulatory enzyme of cholesterol synthesis
cholesterol produced mainly in
liver
cholesterol synthesized from
acetyl CoA
bile salts formed from
cholesterol
serotonin synthesized from
tryptophan
vasoconstrictor
serotonin
LSD interferes with
serotonin
histamine
decreases BP
vasodilator
histamine
mast cells =
histamine
heparin =
1-mast cells
2-basophils
heparin
increase in bleeding time
activate antithrombin
heparin
cortisol inhibits
phospholipase A
prostaglandin enhance
inflammatory effects
protease inhibitor
antithrombin
cyclooxygenase makes
1-prostaglandins
2-prostacyclin
3-thromboxane
epigastric region =
stomach
pericardium &
heart =
middle mediastinum
aortic arch
superior mediastinum
R/L brachiocephalic vein
superior mediastinum
SVC
superior mediastinum
trachea
superior mediastinum
esphagus
superior mediastinum
thoracic duct
superior mediastinum
thymus
superior mediastinum
phrenic nerve
superior mediastinum
vagus
superior mediastinum
cardiac nerve
superior mediastinum
left recurrent nerve
superior mediastinum
3 sections
inferior mediastinum
inferior mediastinum
1-anterior
2-middle
3-posterior
middle mediastinum of
inferior mediastinum >
pericardium
heart
phrenic nerve
posterior mediastinum of
inferior mediastinum >
thoracic aorta
thoracic duct
esophagus
azygos
vagus
splanchnic nerve
anterior mediastinum of
inferior mediastinum >
thymus (part)
internal thoracic artery -parts
pharhngotympanic tube =
eustacian tube
sound waves >
external ear
tympanic cavity =
middle ear
two muscles in middle ear >
stapedius
tensor tympani
vestibular apparatus >
inner ear
semicircular canals >
inner ear
not retroperitoneal
sigmoid colon
ileum
no mesenteries
retroperitoneal organs
retroperitoneal
duodenum
pancreas
kidney
suprarenal gland
IVC
abdominal aorta
ascending colon >
retroperitoneal
transverse colon >
intraperiotoneal
descending colon >
retroperitoneal
sigmoid colon
not retroperi
rectum >
retroperitoneal
2 body cavities
1-dorsal
2-ventral
dorsal cavity=
1-cranial
2-spinal cavity
ventral cavity =
1-thoracic cavity
2-abdominopelvic
thoracic cavity =
1-pericardial
2-pleural
visceral peritoneum
covers retroperitoneal organs
delayed closure of 2 GRANULATING SURFACES
second intention healing
restoration of integrity
healing
after inflammation phase>wound healing by
1-contraction
2-repair
3-regeneration
granulation tissue
second intention
fibroblasts
endothelial cells
granulation tissue
irreg scar
second intention
heal by fibrous adhesion
first intention
no suppuration
no granulation tissue formation
first intention
cicatrization
scar formation
3rd intention
tensile strength
collagen fibers
greatest effect on granulation tissue
glucocorticoids
TORCH
toxoplasmosis
other agents
rubella
cmv
herpes
most uncommon site for infarction
liver
able to regenerate
bone
cartilage
intestinal mucosa
dont regenerate
skeletal mm
smooth mm
neurons
vulnerable to hypoxia/anoxia
heart
brain
lungs
hypertrophy in response to injury
heart
monocytes
macrophages=
reticulo-endothelial
located in reticular CT=spleen
reticulo-endothelial
engulf and remove cellular debris
reticulo-endothelial
constitutes all phago cells of the body except
granulocytes
reticulo-endothelial
macrophage in CNS
microglia
phago cells that line BV in liver
kupffer cells
macrophages fixed in alveolar lining of lungs
alveolar macrophages
dust cells
alveolar macrophages
fixed macrophages in CT
histiocytes
def of glucocerebrosidase
gaucher
def sphingomyelinase=
die w/in a few yrs
niemann pick
def of hex A
tay-sac
die rapidly
most aggressive bronchogenic carcinoma
small cell carcinoma
oat cell
small cell carcinoma
wall of bronchial tree
epithelium of bronchial tree
lung cancer
epidermoid
adenocarcinoma
small cell carcinoma
large cell carcioma
bronchogenic carcinoma
central portion of lung
epidermoid
hilar mass
linked to smoking
epidermoid
in periph
upper lobes of lung

not a/w smoking
adenocarcinoma
develops on sit of prior pulmonary inflammation or injury

-TB
-healed infarcts
adenocarcinoma
central part of lung
most aggressive
small cell carcinoma
most malignant
small cell carcinoma
90% smokers
male
small cell carcinoma
spindle shaped
anaplastic
hyperchromic nucleus
small cell carcinoma
arise in periph
poorly differentiated
large cell carcinoma
anaplastic
large cell carcinoma
survive 5 yrs after diagnosis
14%
diff species living together in which 1 benefits
commensalism
removal of oxygen from a habitat
commensalism
obligatory
interactive association btw members of 2 pop
symbiosis
may benefit
symbiosis
both members live together with mutual benefit
mutualism
state of dormancy
latency
TB
herpes simplex
latency
latent for periods of time and become active under certain conditions
latency
sustitutions
missense
orientation of purine/pyrimidine reversed
transverse
point mutation substitution of one base pair for another

replacement of one purine for another purine
transition
termination codon
nonsense mutation
increase # of cells>increase in size
hyperplasia
failure of cell production
aplasia
fetal dev with aplasia=
ageneis
decrease in cell production
hypoplasia
1 cell type changes to another cell type

*in response to stress*
metaplasia
replacement of columnar cells by stratifed squamous epi
metaplasia
taken from person not genetically related
allograft
same individual
autograft
genetically identical
isograft
most feared consequence of graft therapy
graft versus host rxn
major host response is a cell mediated immune response
xenograft