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129 Cards in this Set

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longer refractory period=
absolute refractory period
ventricle muscle
2 types of refractory period
1-absolute
2-relativ
absolute refractory period=
another AP cant be elicited
no matter how large the stimulus
lenght of absolute refractoru period
duratin of Na inactivation gate closure
relative refractory period
begins at end of absolute refractory period
continues until membrane poptential returns to rest
when can a second AP be elicited
only if stimulus is larger than usual
short refractory period
skeletal muscles
what can be stimulated to contract a 2nd time before they have relaxed from 1 contraction
skeletal muscles
3 cusps
aortic semilunar valve
pulmonary semilunar valve
tricuspid valve (right side)
atrial depolarization
p wave
ventricular repolarization
t wave
ventricular depolarization
qrs
first heart sound=
AV closure at onset of
SYSTOLE
2ns heart sound
semilunar valve closure at onset of
DYSTOLE
PARTIAL HEART BLOCK
second degree block
P-QRS-T
=extra P waves
complete heart block
P and QRS dissociated
5.6 L
CO per minute
CO=
SV X HR
SV=
end diastolic - end systolic
70-80 ml
SV
BRAINBRIDGE REFLEX
nervous reflex
-increase HR, CO
excess blood in right atrium
Brainbridge reflex
RA receptors are sensitive to
pressure
stretch
isovolumic ventricular relaxation
pulmonary/aortic valves CLOSE
ventricular pressure decreases
isovolumic ventricular relaxation
isovolumeic ventricular contraction
mitral/tricuspid valves CLOSE
greates ventricular volume
after atrial systole
greatest ventricular pressure
during ventricular ejection
atrioventicular valve closure
lub
1st heart sound
louder longer sound is when
2nd heart sound
ventricular systole starts
1st heart sound
ventricular dystole ends
1st heart sound
dub
semilunar valve closure
diastole begins
2nd heart sound
splitting of 2nd heart sound
aortic close B4 pulmonary
pacemaker
sinoatrial node
myocytes couples electrically thru
gap jxns
S-T segment
ventricles depolarized
P-R interval
time btw atria and ventricle DEPOLARIZATION
HR INCREASES...PR?
P-R interval decreases
Q-T interval
time btw VENTRICLE depolarization and repolarization
T wave
ventricular depolarization
right arm (-)
left arm (+)
bipolar
limb
lead=
I
right arm (-)
left leg (+)
bipolar
limb
lead
II
left arm (-)
left leg (+)
bipolar
limb
lead
III
right arm (+)
unipolar limb lead

AVR
left arm (+)
unipolar limb lead

AVL
left leg (+)
unipolar limb lead

AVF
venous return important determinate for
CO
demonstrates matching of
CO
Venous return
frank starling
afterload
mean arterial pressure
decrease CO
1-increase in TPR
2-increase in mean arterial blood pressure
pressure difference/
resistance
flow
greater the flow
greater the pressure gradient
decrease flow
increase resistance
less reistance
larger the vessel
radius is 2X
resistance decrease by 16
radius to the 4th power
resistance=
viscosity of blood X length/
radius to the 4th power
most powerful factor in resistance
radius
what decreases venous return
intrathoracic pressure
greatest compliance
veins
veins regulated by
sympathetic nervous sys
decreased during exercise
TPR
lactate
k
adenosine
vasodilator metabolites
why does mean arterial pressure rise during exercise
CO greater than the decrease in TPR
right vagus nerve
SA node
left vagus nerve
AV node
slowest rate of conduction
AV node
what arises in AV node
bundle of his=
spreads depolarization
what cause venticles to depolarize
purkinje fibers
fibrous tissue flaps of endocardium
atrioventricular valves
open during ventricluar systole
semilunar valves
1-pulmonary...right
2-aortic......left
open during ventricular systole
tricuspid
mitral valve
drains into RA
anterior cardiac vein
all cardiac veins drain
coronary sinus
continuation of great cardiac vein
coronary sinus
tributaries of coronary sinus
small/middle cardiac veins
great cardiac vein accompanies
anterior interventricular artery
posterior interventricular artery accompanies
middle cardiac vein (posterior)
jxn of SA node =
superior vena cava
right auricle
pacemaker
SA node
conducting system
modified cardiac muscle
parasympathetic to heart from
vagus > slow down heart
sympathetic from
sympathetic trunk
apex of heart
left ventricle
level of apex of heart
left 5th intercostal space
right atrium to left atrium
foramen ovale
endocardium >
tunica intima of BV
myocardium >
tunica media of BV
pericardium / epicardium >
serous membrane
epicardium covered
simple squamous epi
location of heart
middle mediastinum
largest artery in body
aorta
what returns blood from the myocardial capillaries > coronary sinus
1-great cardiac vein

2-middle cardiac vein
largest venous passageway
coronary sinus
all cardiac veins drain into coronary sinus except
anterior cardiac vein
anterior cardiac vein >
DIRECTLY dright atrium
coronary sinus >
right atrium
apex of heart...heart valve
mitral valve
tricuspid valve heard...
right of body of sternum
pulmonary valve
Left 2nd intercostal space
apex of heart
left 5th intercostal space
aortic valve
right 2nd intercostal space
valve btw right atrium/right ventricle
tricuspid valve
chordae tendinae a/w
tricuspid
mitral valve (left)
pectinate muscles
right atrium
inner surface
crista terminalis
right atrial wall
-vertical muscular ridge
SA node located in
crista terminalis
near opening of SVC
papillary muscles
prevent cusp from being everted
papillary muscle terminates
tendinous cords
systems of CAD
angina
inadequate BF thru blood vessels
angina
burnign pain
squeezing of substernal chest
angina
feel pain only when exercise
chronic angina
primary effect of CAD
loss of oxygen
bc less blood to heart
cause of CAD
atherosclerosis
right coronary artery supplies
blood from aorta
>
right side of heart
heart
brain
skeletal muscle
CPK
high CPK
indicates injury/stress
most deaths occur outside hospital due to
arrhythmias
angina pectoris pain relieved by
rest
nitrates
after MI
increase

-SGPT
-SGOT
-LDH
-CK
infectious endocarditis
strep viridans
alpha hemolytic strep
strep viridans
heart muscle
myocarditis
lining of heart
pericarditis
hallmark of endocarditis
fever
splinter hemorrhage=small dark lines under fingernails
endocarditis
clumps of
bacteria
fibrin
cellular debris
collect on heart valves
vegetations