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46 Cards in this Set

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Heart sounds in ASD?
Prominent RV Cardiac Impulse
Systolic ejection murmur
2nd Heart sound c a fixed split
Colloid Cyst description
Derived from embryonic misplaced endodermal epithelium. Therefor, mucin producing cilliated cells are present
Heart sounds for Aortic Stenosis
Systolic ejection murmur
Creshendo/Decreshendo
Cortisol effect on gluconeogenesis of hepatocytes
Cortisol= Steroid Hormone therefor it will enter the cell and work on gene expression.
Tetracyclin and Antibiotics
They bind in the Gut preventing Tetracyclin from being absorbed.
Median N. origination from Brachial Plexus
Lateral and medial cords
Musculocutanous N. origination from the Brachial Plexus?
Lateral Cord
Target Cells???
RBC c peripherally dense rim of Hb enclosing a zone of pallor
HLA A3
HLA B27
HLA DR2+ HLA DR3
HLA DR3
HLA DR3 + HLA DR4
HLA DR4
A3: Primary Hemochromatosis
B27: Psoriasis, Ankylosising Spondilysis, IBD and Reiters Syndrome
DR2+DR3: SLE
DR3: Sjogren's Syndrome, Chronic Hepatitis
DR3 + DR4: DM type I
HLA DR4: RA
Life span for an Edward's Baby (Trisomy 18)
2-3mo
Resection of the Ileum will do what to Ca and PO4 and Vit D?
Decreased ability to reabsorb bile salts --> Decreased Vit D --> Decreased Ca and PO4
Entomeba Histolytica cysts?
Cysts c 4 nuclei
Granular, spherical thin walled cysts form
Stimulation of the afferent part of CN IX adn X will..?
IX (Carotid sinus), X (Aortic Arch baroreceptor)
Stimulation of either will make body think that there is HTN --> Bradycardia and reflex hypotension
Lymphatics of the lower limb
Most --> Long Saphonous V --> Inguinal Ligaments

Exception: SKin on Lateral side of the dorsum of the foot --> Short Saphonous V. --> Lymph in Popliteal Fossa.
Chromosome of DCC gene and DPC gene?
Chromo 18

DCC: Colon Ca
DPC: Pancreatic Ca
Chromosome of BRCA, NFI, NFII, p53?
BRCA --> 17q
NFI --> 17q
NFII --> 22q
p53 --> 17p
What does Herpes of the Esophagus look like?
punched out ulcers of the esophagus
Bx: glassy intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies
What does CMV Esophagitis look like on BX?
purple intranuclear inclusions c granular cytoplasmic inclusions (Lg cell size!)

Still Ulcerate like Herpes though
Name different phases of ovarian follicle development?
1. Primordial
2. Primary
3. Secondary
4. Graafian
5. Corpus Luteum
What does hyperresonance of the chest wall signify?
PNEUMOTHORAX
What meiotic phase are Primordial Follicles frozen in?
arrested in diplotene stage of 1st meiotic division.
MOA of Methyldopa?
DOC: HTN in PREGOS

converted to alpha-methylnorepinephrine (alpha2 agonist). When it goes to the Medulla it decreases the sympathetic output and thus decreases BP.
What happens when you decrease Na intake?
You decrease extracellular fluid volume --> Decreasing arterial pressure --> Increasing renin release
Why cant you give ACE (-) and ARBS to PREGOS?
(-prils and -sartans)

they will injure the fetus
-hypotension
-skull hypoplasia
-anuria
-RF
-death
What Hb do Beta-Thalassemia pts have? And what is the defect?
AR
HbA2 and HbF
defect is in transcription, processing, or translation of the Beta globulin mRNA.
What is critical to removing Immune Complexes?
C3b!!!
What is a volvulus?

And what part of the colon is most likely to do this?
Twisting of the intestine to cause and obstruction

Sigmoid Colon: no posterior peritoneal membrane to hold it to the wall
What is Carnitine used for?
(lysine is methylated to become Carnitine)

It is essencial for the transport of Long Chain FA into the mitochondria
What tumor is KS similar to?
Similar to Angiosarcoma. Proliferation of stromal cells and endothelium to create vascular channels c blood cells.
How can a pt get multiple clots in their brain from a DVT???
They have a R --> L Shunt though a patent FORAMEN OVALE.

This is common believe it or not!!!
Reiter's Syndrome
-Acute Onset Arthritis
-Lower jts MC affected
-Dactylitis (sausage fingers/toes)
-Spinal pain and Low back pain
-Conjunctivitis, urethritis, diarrhea, skin lesions
-HLA-B27 (+) 75% pts
Cx agents: Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter jejuni, Chlamidia
-Young Males
Benign Paracortical expansion and scattered Multinucleated giant cells c eosinophilic cytoplasm and inclusion bodies
Warthin-Finkeldey
***PATHOPNEUMONIC for Measles or Live Attn Vacination

-Created by fusion of lymphocytes
G(-) diplococci
Neisseria or Moroxella

Neisseria meningitidis: rapid onset of meningitis...fever, headache, malaise
Pts c Lyme and Persistant Arthritis from Untx Lyme
Tend to be HLA-DR4 Class II MHC molecules

HLA-B27 is associated with Reactive Arthritis
2 bacteria that can cx short term (c in 2 hrs) Food Poisoning
Staph Aureus and Bacillius Cerrus (reheated rice!)
Difference between S. Aureus Food Poisoning and C. Botulinum Food Poisoning?
S. aureus --> HS Toxin, Fast onset

C. botulinum --> HL Toxin, neurologic symptoms!`
Babesia microti
1 wk incubation
Eastern Seaboard
Intraerythrocyte Parasite

Related to Plasmodium
Most impt body mechanism for clearing S. pneumoniae and other extracelluar organisms
COMPLEMENT MEDIATED OPSONIZATION
ADCC Cells
Antibody dependent Cell Cytotoxicity
NK Cells that destroy viral cells and tumor cells

Our cells coated in Ab
Cytotoxic T Cells
Only rxt c cells that have Ag epitopes presented c MHC I molecules
LAK Cells
NK cells that are activated by IL-2 (Superactive NK Cells)
NK Cells
destroy viral infected cells and tumor cells.
DNA Viruses...
Parva's Papa Adds Her Poxes to Hepa

Parvovirdae
Papavirdae
Adenovirdae
Herpevirdae
Poxvirdae
Hepadnavirdae

(all are Nuclear Replicators except Pox because it is sooo big it brings all of its own rep material with it and does it in the Cytoplasm!)
Picornavirus...
(+) RNA

PEE Co Rn A

Polio
ECHO
Entero
Coxsackie
Rhino
HepA
Why can Influenza undergo Genetic Shift so easily???
Because it has a segmented GENOME

This leads to PANDEMICS
Yersinia Pestis Presentation
-Rural Area
-Unconsious c severe Bronchopneumonia
-Sudden onset of Chills, fever, headache
-Days later: chest pain, difficulty breathing, blood tinged sputum
CXR: Patchy infiltrated c segmental consolidation