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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
all transaminases require the coenzyme
pryidoxal phosphate (PLP)
transamination rxn
nitrogen is transferred from one amino acid to another in catabolism of aa
oxidative deamination
liberation of the amino group as free ammonia NH3
anterior spinothalamic asc tract
conducts sensory impulses for touch and pressure
lateral spinothalamic asc tract
conducts pain and temperature impulses
fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus asc tract
conducts sensory impulses from skin, muscles, tendons, and joints, also fine touch localization
posterior spinocerebellar asc tract
conducts sensory impulses from one side of body to same side of cerebellum for subconscious proprioception
anterior corticospinal descending tract & lateral corticospinal dsc tract
conducts motor impulses from cerebrum to spinal nerves and outward through anterior horns for coordinated movements
tectospinal dsc tract
conducts motor impulses to cells of anterior horns and eventually to muscles that move the head
rubrospinal dsc tract
conducts motor impulses concerned with muscle tone and posture
vestibulospinal dsc tract
conducts motor impulses that regulate body tone and posture (equilibrium) in response to movements of head
anterior and medial and lateral reticulospinal dsc tract
conducts motor impulses that control ms tone and sweat gladn activity
embden-meyerhof pathway
specific glycolytic pathway by which glucose is converted to lactic acid, most common pathway used by large number of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic. oral bacteria use this pathway.2ATP generated per glucose
Entner-Doudoroff pathway
glycolytic pathway used by many aerobic bacteria, only one ATP per glucose
presence of glucose in urine, can be caused by low insulin lvl, high blood sugar lvl, impaired tubular reasbsorption, or high glomerular filtration rate
reducing sugars contain
a free anomeric carbon that can be oxidized, the oxygen on the anomeric carbon (the carbonyl group) of a sugar is not attached to any other structure
reducing sugars ex
lactose, maltose, glucose, galactose and fructose
is NOT a reducing sugar
Cushing's syndrome
an abnormal bodily condition that is caused by excess corticosteroids and especially cortisol usually from adrenal or pituitary hyperfunction and that is characterized by a variety of signs and symptoms including especially a change in appearance marked by moon facies with plethora, obesity, easy bruising, slow wound healing, and hypokalemia
metabolic acidosis
blood acidity by low lvl of bicarbonate in blood. major causes: chronic renal failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, poisons and diarrhea
respiratory acidosis
blood acidity by buildup of CO2. major causes: hypoventilation, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, severe pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and asthma
a condition of the lung that is marked by distension and eventual rupture of the alveoli with progressive loss of pulmonary elasticity, that is accompanied by shortness of breath with or without cough, and that may lead to impairment of heart action
metabolic alkalosis
high lvl of bicarbonate. major causes: vomiting acidic gastric contents or ingesting alkaline drugs
repiratory alkalosis
low blood CO2 lvl. major causes: hyperventilation (from anxiety), pain, cirrhosis of the liver, low lvls of O2 in the blood (high attitude), and aspirin overdose * much less common than resp acidosis
gaucher's dz
disorder of lipid metabolism caused by a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase so mononuclear phagocytes accumulate glucocerebrosides (glycosingolipid), enlargement of spleen and liver
lipid storage diseases caused by abnormalities in the enzymes that break down fats
niemann-pick disease
accumulate sphingomyelin, enlargement of liver, spleen, anemia, fever, death by 3
tay-sachs dz
accumulate gangliosides in neurons, most common form of liposes, jewish, CNS degen, death by 4
hurler's syndrome
accumulate haparin sulfate and dermatan sulfate in heart, liver, brain, dwarfism, mental retard, death by 10
black urin is a common finding in people with
failure to catabolize tyrosine beyond the intermediate homogenistic acid, which is excreted in the urine and makes it appear black, no serious ill effects
failure to convert tyrosine to melanin as a result of a deficiency of the enzyme, tyrosinase
phenylketonuria (PKU)
accumulate phenylalanine toxic to brain tissue, mental retardation
excessive urinary excretion of cystine and other aa, caused by a defect in the renal tubules that impair reabsorption of these aa
gives rise to glutamate, which in turn gives rise to glutamine, proline, arginine
gives rise to serine, which in turn gives rise to glycine and cysteine
gives rise to aspartate, which in turn gives rise to asparagine, methionine, threonine, and lysine
gives rise to alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine
gives rise to histidine
vit B1
vit B2
vit B3
pantothenic acid
vit B5
vit B6
vit B6
vit B12