Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
influenza, RNA virus
mumps, measles, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, syncytia formation-cytopathic, RNA virus
inflammation, edema, and subsequent obstruction of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi especially of infants and young children that is typically caused by a virus and is marked by episodes of difficult breathing and hoarse metallic cough
nuclear bag and chain fibers
two main types of intrfusal fibers that are encapsulated in sheaths to form muscle spindles
extrafusal fibers
fibers that make up the bulk of the muscle, innervated by alpha-motor neurons, provide the force for muscle contraction
intrafusal fibers
are encapsulated in sheaths to form muscle spindles, innervated by gamma-motor neurons
nuclear bag fibers
detect fast, dynamic changes in muscle length. innervated by group Ia afferents (fastest in the body)
nuclear chain fibers
detect static changes in muscle length, innervated by the slower group II afferents
converts starch to maltose and dextrins
converts starch to glucose
formed by interstitial cells of Leydig which lie in the space between the seminiferous tubules
most prominent functional component in the tunica media of small arteries
smooth muscle cells
most prominent functional component in the tunica media of large arteries
elastic fibers
vasa vasorum
small nutrient vessels that supply the large vessels (arteries and veins) with nourishment since their walls are too thick to be nourished by diffusion from the blood in the vessel
tunica externa or adventitia
thin outermost layer serves to attach the vessel to the surrounding tissue, contains vasa vasorum
mandible and the maxilla mostly formed by
intramembranous ossification
Hunter-Schreger bands
alternating light and dark lines seen in dental enamel that begin at teh DEJ and end before they reach the enamel surface. represent areas of enamel rods cut in cross-section dispersed between areas of rods cut longitudinally
enamel tufts
fan-shaped, hypocalcified structures of enamel rods that project from the DEJ into the enamel proper (fxn unknown)
enamel spindles
elongated odontoblastic processes (hair-like) that traverse the DEJ from the underlying odontoblast, may serve as pain receptors
enamel lamellae
defects in the enamel resembling cracks or fractures which traverse the entire length of the crown from the surface to the DEJ, contain mostly organic material and may provide an area for decay (bacterial) to enter
middle ear (tympanic) cavity communicates anteriorly with the nasopharynx via the
eustachian (auditory) tube aka pharyngotympanic tube
eustachian tube
serves to equalize air pressure in the tympanic cavity and the nasopharynx
middle eary
contains 3 small bones (ossicles) malleus the hammer stapes the stirrup and incus the anvil, also two muscles stapedius and tensor tympani
cartilaginous bar of the first branchial arch is
meckel's cartilage (mandibular cartilage)
a typical branchial arch contains
an artery, a cartilagionous bar or rod, a muscular component, and a nerve
first arch cartilage (meckel's cartilage)
closely related to teh developing middle ear, becomes ossifed to form the malleus and incus of the middle ear
second arch cartilage
reichert's cart, form stapes of the middle ear and the styloid process of the temporal bone
thrid arch cartilage
become hyoid bone
fourth and sixth cartilage
fuse to form laryngeal cartilages, except for epiglottis
meckels' cartilagee
not participating in the formation of any part of the mandible, fate is dissolution with minor contributions to ossification, first arch cart
nerves that innervate TMJ
auriculotemporal, masseteric, deep temporal n
gingival fibers are found
in the free gingiva
persistent decrease in the number of blood platelets that is often associated with hemorrhagic conditions -- called also thrombopenia
a clot of blood formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin
an abnormal particle (as an air bubble) circulating in the blood
Vegetations on the heart valves in acute bacterial endocarditis usually consist of
fused platelets, fibrin and masses of bacteria.
a condition marked by an abnormal increase in the number of circulating red blood cells
a condition in which the number of white blood cells circulating in the blood is abnormally low
an increase in the number of white blood cells in the circulating blood
a tumor that is derived from chromaffin cells (of adrenal medulla) and is usually associated with paroxysmal or sustained hypertension
oat cell carcinoma
small-cell lung cancer
cancer of a highly malignant form that affects the lungs, tends to metastasize to other parts of the body, and is characterized by small round or oval cells resembling oat grains and having a high ratio of nuclear protoplasm to cytoplasm
paget's dz of bone
common in elderly, inclease in serum alkaline phosphatase, normal calcium and phosphorous, abn bone architecture
acute laryngotracheobronchitis, parainfluenza virus
lobar pneumonia
a diffuse, inflammatory distribution
a patchy, inflammatory distribution
The most common malignancy found in bones of the human skeleton is
metastatic carcinoma
Vitamin K is necessary for
formation of prothrombin (Factor 11).
The most common cause for megaloblastic anemia is
lack of dietary folic acid
Vitamin A functions to
promote differentiation of epithelial cells.
a disease marked by dermatitis, gastrointestinal disorders, mental disturbance, and memory loss and associated with a diet deficient in niacin and protein
failure of osteoclasitc activity, increased density of bones
output of the cerebellum is excitatory, basal ganglia are inhibitory (use GABA as neurotransmitter)
GABA synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase
which introcular structure controls the amount of light that enters the eye by opening and closing like the aperture of a camera lens?
the size of the pupil is controlled by the
papillary sphincter muscle which opens and closes iris
capillary pressure
pressure of the blood within the capillaries, it tends to force fluid out of the capillaries and into the tissue spaces by filtration thru the capillary walls
colloid osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid
tends to draw water out of the capillaries by osmosis
interstitial fluid pressure
pressure of the interstitial fluid and it opposes the capillary pressure, tends to move fluid out of the tissue spaces and into the capillaries
colloid osmotic pressure of the plasma (=oncotic pressure)
opposes the coolid osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid and this oncotic pressure tends to draw water into the capillaries by osmosis
collapse of the expanded lung
a condition in which air or other gas is present in the pleural cavity and which occurs spontaneously as a result of disease or injury of lung tissue
situated or occurring outside the intestine <parenteral drug administration by intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection>;
ethylene oxide
slow process (10-16 hrs), does not damage heat sensitive material, irreversibly inactivating cellular DNA and proteins
which ms of the soft palate draws the soft palate down to the tongue, closing the oropharyngeal isthmus?
celiac trunk
1. hepatic artery- liver, upper pancreas, duodenum and gallbladder
2. left gastric artery- stomach, esophagus
3. splenic artery- spleen, stomach, and omentum
facial vein
has no vlaves and a backflow can cause an infection to get into the dural sinuses through deep facial vein (via pterygoid plexus) and superior opthalmic vein (via cavernous sinus)
deep facial vein
communication between the facial vein and the pterygoid plexus
superior opthalmic vein
communication between the facial vein and the cavernous sinus
which enzyme produced by Group A streptococci (S pyogens) activates plasminogen to form plasmin, which dissolves fibrin in clots, thrombi, and emboli?
streptolysin O
hemolysin that is inactivated by oxidation (it is oxygen-labile) it is also antigenic
streptolysin S
hemolysin that is not inactivated by oxygen (it is oxygen-stabile), it is not antigenic