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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The heart rests on the diaphragm, near the midline of the thoracic cavity in the ___________
mediastinum
The pointed end of the heart is the _______
apex
The broad portion of the heart opposite the apex is the _______
base
The _______ surface is deep to the sternum and ribs
anterior
The inferior surface rests mostly on the ________
diaphram
The membrane that surrounds and protects the heart is the;
pericardium
The wall of the heart has three layers:
epicardium (visceral layer of the serous pericardium),
myocardium, endocardium
The epicardium consists of _________ and _________
mesothelium and connective tissue
The myocardium is composed of ________ ________ _______
cardiac muscle tissue
The endocardium consists of __________ and ________ _____
endothelium and connective tissue
The heart chambers include two superior chambers, the right and left _______ and two inferior chambers, the right and left _________
atria
ventricles
External features of the heart include:
the auricles (flaps on each atrium by the interatrial septum); the coronary sulcus; the atria and ventricles; and posterior sulci
This receives blood from the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava and coronary sinus
The right atrium
The right atrium is separated from the left atrium by the _______ _______
interatrial septum
Blood exits the right atrium through the ______ _______
tricuspid valve
The right ventricle receives blood from the ______ ______
Right atrium
The right ventricle is separated from the left ventricle by the ______ _____
interventricular septum
The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs through the ______ _____ and _____ ____
pulmonary valve and pulmonary trunk
Oxygenated blood enters the ______ ______ from the ______ _______ and exits through the _______(mitral)_______
left atrium
pulmonary veins
bicuspid valve
The ______ ______ pumps oxygenated blood into the ______ ______ though the ______ _____ and ______
left ventricle
systemic circulation
aortic valve
aorta
The thickness of the myocardium of the four chambers varies according to the chamber's function. The ______ ______ has the thickest wall because of its high workload
left ventricle
The ______ _______ of the heart is dense connective tissue that surrounds and supports the the valves of the heart
fibrous skeleton
Heart valves prevent ________ of blood within the heart
backflow
The _______(AV)______, which lie between the atria and ventricles, are the ______ _____ on the right side of the heart and the _______ (mitral)______ on the left
atrioventricular valves
tricuspid valve
bicuspid valve
The ______ ______ and ______ muscles stabilize the flaps of the AV valves and stop blood from backing into the atria
chordae tendineae
papillary
Each of the two arteries tht leaves the heart has a ________ _____ (aortic and pulmonary)
semilunar valve
The left side of the heart is the pump for the _______ ________
systemic circulation
The circulation of blood throughout the body except for the air sac of the lungs is;
Systemic circulation
The left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta, and blood then flows into ______ ______, ______, ________, ________, and ______, which carry it back to the right atrium
systemic arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins
The right side of the heart is the pump for ______ ______, the circulation of blood through the lungs.
pulmonary circulation
The right ventricle ejects blood into the pulmonary trunk, and blood flows into _______ ____, _______ ______, and ______ ______, which carry it back the left atrium.
pulmonary arteries, pulmonary capillaries, and pulmonary veins
The flow of blood through the heart is called the ______(cardiac)______
coronary circulation
The principle arteries of the coronary circulation are the left and right _______ ______
coronary arteries
The principle veins ar the ______ vein and the _______ ______
cardiac vein, coronary sinus
______ _____ form the conduction system; these are cardiac muscle fibers that spontaneously generate action potentials
autorhythmic cells
components of the conduction system are the ______(SA)_____ (pacemaker),______(AV)_______, ________(AV)_______, _______ _______, and _________ ______(purkine fibers)
sinoatrial node
atrioventricular node
atrioventricular bundle
bundle branches
conduction myofibers
The record of electrical changes during the course of cardiac cycles is called an ___________(ECG)
electrocardiogram
A cardiac cycle consists of ________(contraction) and ______(relaxation) of both artria, and both ventricles
systole and diastole
The phases of the cardiac cycle are ________ _____, ________ _____, ________ _____.
relaxation period, ventricular filling, ventricular systole
The heart develops from
mesoderm
What is the mediastinum?
The mediastinum is the mass of tissue that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column between the pleurae of the lungs.
Which layer is both part of the pericardium and a part of the heart wall?
The visceral layer of the serous pericardium(epicardium) is both a part of the pericardium and a part of the heart wall
The coronary sulcus forms a boundary between which chambers of the heart?
The coronary sulcus forms a boundary between the atria and ventricles
Which chamber has the thickest wall?
The left ventricle has the thickest wall
Which component of the fibrous skeleton supports the heart valves?
The four fibrous rings.
How do papillary muscles prevent AV valve cusps from everting or swinging upward into the atria?
The papillary muscles contract, which pulls ont he chordae tendineae and prevents valve cusps from everting.
Which coronary blood vessel delivers oxygenated blood to the left atrium and left ventricle?
The circumflex artery delivers oxygenated blood to the left atrium and left ventricle.
What are the functions of intercalated discs in cardiac muscle fibers?
The intercalated discs hold the cardiac muscle fibers together ad enable action potentials to propagate from one muscle fiber to another
Which component of the conduction system provides the only electrical connection between the atria and the ventricles?
The only electrical connection between the atria and the ventricles is the atrioventricular bundle.
What is the status of the hearts valves during ventricular filling?
The atrioventricular valves are open and the semilunar valves are closed
Name two anatomical structures where we find precoreceptors.
Corotid sinus and aortic arch (ascending aorta)
Name the nerves carrying afferent fibers.
Vagus and glossiopharyngeal
(IX,X)
What structure in the brain do the afferent fibers end?
Medulla (cardiac center)
Name 2 nerves which carry efferent fibers?
Vagus(parasympathetic)
Cardiac(sympathetic)
Give any example of a conducting artery in the body.
Ascending aorta or aortic arch,(any part of the aorta) the aorta is the major conducting artery
Give any example of a distributing artery in the body.
Brachius cephalic, left subclavian, left common carotid
What name do we give the smallest arteries?
arterioles
What is the major difference in the histology between arteries and veins?
Arteries are thicker and have elastic fibers
Give the names of two specific circulatory routes or loops other than systemic.
Pulmonary and cerebral circulation
The cusps of the tricuspid valve are connected to tendon-like cords called
chordae tendineae