Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System
brain & spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous system
nerves from brain/spinal cord & muscles, glands, & sense organs. consists of two divisions: autonomic system & somatic system
Autonomic nervous system
consists of two divisions: sympathetic (emergency) and parasympathetic (rest & digest)
somatic nervous system
controls skeletal muscle
form myelin on CN axons. one oligodendrocyte may branch to as many as 40 axons
Schwann cell
represent the PNS glial cells; part of the PNS; form myelnin on peripheral neuronal axons; one schwann cell to one axon.
axon transport
movement in order to maintain structure/function of cell axon, organelles & materials. must be moved as much as one meter from cell body, whhere they are made to axon & its terminals
linking proteins
travel along microtubule (rail) & act as motors. made up of two: kinesins & dyneins
anterograde, move toward axon termianl
retrograde, move toward neuron cell body
serve as signal-chargers or gatekeepers; only in central nervous system; communication between afferent and efferent neurons
anatomically specialized junction between 2 neurons where one neuron alters the electrical & chemical actiity of another
glial cells
make up 90% of cells in CNS; 3 types: oligodendrocytes, astroglia, microglia
help reguglate teh extracellular fluid composition, sustain the neurons metabolically (providign glucose, removing ammonia), form blood-brain barrier, serve as guides for developing neurons
provide immune functions
cell adhesion molecules & neurotropic factors
important for axon growth
equilibrium potentials
deal w/ relationship between membrane potential & concentration gradient.
nernst equation
describes equilibrium potential for any ion species; its the electrical potential necessary to balance a given ionic concentration gradient across a membrane so that net flux equals zero.
goldman equation
expanded version of nernst equation; takes into account of individual ion permeability
specific protein in axon termianl that Ca binds to
receptor desensitization
only in some systems, a receptor responds once & then temporarily fails to respond despite the continued presence of teh receptor's neurotransmitter
Axo-axonal communications
is "communication" between a presynaptic axon & another axon; modifies classical synaptic communication
messengers that elicit complex responses that cannot be simply described as EPSPs or IPSPs. they often modify the postsynaptic cell's response to specific neurotransmitters, amplifying or dampening the effectiveness of ongoin synaptic activity. they may also change the presynaptic cell's synthesis, release, reuptake, or metabolism of a transmitter.
sensory system
part of NS that consists of sensory receptor cells that receive stimuli from the external ro internal environment, the neural pathways that conduct info from receptors to the brain & spinal cord
sensory information
regardless of whether the info reaches consciousness
if info reaches the consciousness
a person's understanding of the sensation meaning
sensory receptors
either specialized endings of afferent neurons or separate cells that temselves signal teh afferent neurons by the release of chemical messengers.
*change different energy forms (sound, light) into graded potentials that can initiate action potentials, which travel into the central nervous system
energy that impinges upon & activates a sensory receptor
stimulus transduction
process y which a stimulus is transformed into an electrical response
adequate stimulus
tpe of energy to which a particular receptor responds in normal functioning. many types of sensory receptors, each of which responds much more readily to one form of energy than to others.
is a decrease in receptor sensitivity, which result in a decrease in frequency of action potentials in an afferent neuron despite that the stimulus strength does not change. this helps prevent sensory overload.
sensory coding
conversion of receptor potentials ito a pattern of action potentials that conveys relevant sensory information to the CNS
sensory unit
consists of a single afferent neuron w/ all its receptor endings
receptive field
the portion of the body that when stimulated, leads to activity in apartiular afferent neuron
rapidly adapting receptors
at the onset of prolonged stimulation, fire a burst of action potentials followed by very slow firing or none at all. these receptors are good for detecting rapidly changing stimuli such as vibration
slowly adapting receptors
fire as long as timulation continues. they report maintained or slowly changing events like posture or pressure.
specific ascending pathways
pathways that carry informaiton about single types of stimuli
nonspecific ascending pathways
eurons in this passways are activated by sensory units of several general information.
somatic sensation
sensation from teh skin, muscles, bones, tendons, & joints; it is initiated by a variety of specialized somatic receptors