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35 Cards in this Set

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Digital Data Representation
form in which info is conceived, manipulated, and recorded on a digital device.
Numeric Data
consists of numbers representing quantities used in arithmetic operations.
Digital Data Representation
uses discrete digits/electronic signal
binary number system
allows computers to represent virtually any number simply by using 0's and 1's, translated to 'on' and 'off'.
ASCII

Extended ASCII

EBIDIC

Unicode
7 bits/character

8 bits/character

8 bits/character (older IBM machines)
16 bits (good for languages)
bit
one binary digit
byte
8 bits
kilobyte
1024
megabyte
1,048,576 or million bytes
gigabyte
billion bytes
terabyte
trillion bytes
Integrated Circuits
super thin slice of semi-conducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements
Integrated Circuits
used for processors, memory, and support circuitry
microprocessor (processor)
(IC) designed to process instructions
largest chip on the motherboard
Intel
world's largest chipmaker (pentiums-microprocessor)
AMD
(Athlons) cheaper chips
main circuit board / motherboard
houses all essential chips and provides the connecting circuitry between them.
processor performance factors
speed, word size, cache
microprocessor's speed
processor clock- timing device that sets the pace for executing instruction (clock speed)
word size
number of bits the processor can manipulate at one time (32-bit or 64-bit)
cache
or RAM cache or cache memory, special high speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly
instruction set
list of instructions that a processor can perform.
CISC (complete instruction set computer)
RISC (reduced instruction set computer)
CISC
add increasingly more complex instructions, each of which required several clock cycles for execution
RISC
limited set of simple instructions
(processor's) processing techniques
serial
piplining
parallel
memory types
-random access memory (RAM)
-Virtual Memory
-Read-Only Memory (ROM)
-CMOS
RAM
-temporary (volatile) holding area for data, application software and operating system
-expensive chip set
-less storage than disk
-capacitor hold bits
-capacity measured in MB
-makes noticeable difference
RAM types
- SDRAM

- RDRAM
Virtual Memory
-disk based
-stores parts of programs and data until they are needed by the processor
-works with RAM, but is slower
ROM
(read only memory)
-permanent on a chip from manufacturer
-holds computer start up routine, which are hard-wired instructions
-ROMBIOS (basic input/output system
CMOS
(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
-battery powered
-more permanenty than RAM; less permanent than ROM
-Stores basic computer configuration
-must be updated via CMOS setup program when configured changed
computer file
-a collection of data on a storage medium
-filename conventions
-filename extension
File Locations
Device drive letters A: C: D:
(file locations)directory
-root directory (C:\)
-Subdirectory
-File specificiation or Path
-File size and date
File Storage
-storage medium formatted into tracks/sectors electronically
-file system keeps track of names