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362 Cards in this Set

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Basics of IT Hardware
Basics of IT Hardware
What is a computer?
A machine that manipulates data according to instructions.
What are the 2 major components of a computer?
1. Hardware
2. Software
What is hardware?
The physical devices associated with a computer system.
What is software?
The set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks.
What are the 6 major hardware components of a computer?
1. The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
2. Primary Storage
3. Secondary Storage
4. Input devices
5. Output devices
6. Communication devices
What is the CPU?
The brain of a computer that interprets and executes the software program instructions and coordinates how all other hardware devices work together.
Who are the 2 major manufacturers of CPUs?
1. Intel
2. AMD
What 3 parts make up the CPU hardware? Put them in order from bottom to top.
1. Chip
2. Heatsink
3. Fan
What are the 2 components of the CPU?
1. The Control Unit
2. The Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU)
What is the Control Unit?
The component of the CPU that interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do
What is the Arithmetic-Logic Unit?
The component of the CPU that performs all arithmetic operations and all logical operations.
What are the 4 arithmetic operations that the CPU performs?
Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division
What are the 2 logical operations that the CPU performs?
Sorting and comparing numbers.
What does a CPU always need in order to perform jobs?
The CPU always needs instructions to perform jobs.
Where are the CPU's instructions mainly stored?
In the RAM.
What determines the speed of the CPU?
The number of CPU cycles per second
What are the 2 measurement units of CPU speed?
1. Megahertz (MHz)
2. Gigahertz (GHz)
What is the definition of Megahertz?
The number of millions of CPU cycles per second
What is the definition of Gigahertz?
The number of billions of CPU cycles per second
What are the 6 determinants of CPU speed?
1. Internal Clock Speed
2. Word Length
3. Data Bus Width and Frequency
4. Caching
5. Special Designs
6. Instruction Set
What is the internal clock speed?
The speed of the internal clock of a CPU that sets the pace at which operations proceed within the computer's internal processing circuitry.
What 2 units is the internal clock speed measured in?
1. MHz
2. GHz
What is happening to the effect of increasing clock speed on computer performance?
The effect of increasing clock speed on computer performance is getting marginal.
What is word length?
The number of bits that can be processed by the CPU at any one time.
What is a bit?
The smallest unit of information that a computer can process.
How does a bit send signals to a computer?
The bit uses electrical pulses to send signals to a computer.
What are the 2 states of a bit and their symbols?
1. On (I)
2. Off (O)
What is the full name of "bit"?
Binary digit.
What is a byte?
A group of eight bits (8 bits = 1 byte)
What does Word Length need the support of?
An operating system.
What is the Data Bus Width and Frequency?
The size of the internal electrical pathway where signals are sent from one part of the computer to another.
In order to obtain faster processing, should the Data Bus Width be narrower or wider?
The Data Bus Width should be wider.
What is Caching?
Caching is accessing a small unit of ultra-fast memory that is used to store recently or frequently accessed data so that the CPU does not have to retrieve this data from slower memory circuits such as RAM
In terms of Caching, what are the is the difference between the Intel Celeron and the Intel Pentium?
The Celeron has a 16KB cache, while the Pentium has a 2MB cache.
What are 2 types of Special Designs?
1. Math coprocessor
2. Multimedia processing (MMX)
What are 2 types of Instruction Sets?
1. Sequential
2. Parallel
What is Sequential Processing?
An instruction set where one task is initiated and must be completed before the next task takes place.
What is Parallel Processing?
An instruction set where multiple instructions can be executed and completed at the same time.
What are the 2 types of Parallel Processing?
1. Physical
2. Logical
What is Physical Parallel Processing?
Physical parallel processing is multitasking with multiple physical CPUs.
What is Logical Parallel Processing?
Logical parallel processing is multitasking with a single CPU.
What is the technology associated with Logical Parallel Processing?
Hyper-Threading Technology by Intel
What type of instruction set do supercomputers use in order become faster?
Supercomputers get faster using parallel processing.
How many processors does the deep blue supercomputer have?
The deep blue supercomputer has 256 processors (Physical Parallel Processing)
What is the difference between a dual-core or quad-core processors?
Dual-core processors contain 2 microprocessors while Quad-core processors contain 4 microprocessors.
Are dual-core processors better than 2 single processors?
Dual-core processors are better than 2 single process in some aspects.
What are the 2 categories of storage for computers?
1. Primary storage
2. Secondary storage
What makes primary storage different from secondary storage?
Primary storage CAN be directly accessed by the CPU while secondary storage CANNOT be directly accessed by the CPU
What are the 3 types of primary storage?
1. Random Access Memory (RAM)
2. Cache Memory
3. Read Only Memory (ROM)
What are the 3 characteristics of memory?
1. Size
2. Speed
3. Volatility
What is the definition of size of memory?
The size of memory is the amount of data that can be stored in megabytes or gigabytes.
How is the size of memory usually specified?
The size of memory is usually specified as an amount x width (32x8)
What are the 2 types of memory speed?
1. Read speed
2. Write speed
What are the 2 different kinds of read speed of memory?
1. Random access
2. Burst
What's the difference between random access and burst reading of memory?
Random access reads information from any location while burst reading reads a sequence of locations that are continuous.
What are the 2 characteristics of volatility of memory?
1. Refresh
2. Power
What does refresh volatility refer to?
When some data must be constantly rewritten because some data was lost
What does power volatility refer to?
When memory loses power, some data is lost
What is Random Access Memory (RAM)?
The part of memory that is used to store instructions and data temporarily during processing.
What are 2 types of RAM?
1. Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
2. Static RAM (SRAM)
What are 3 characteristics of Dynamic RAM (DRAM)?
1. Must be constantly refreshed & have power
2. Relatively slow (16 MHz)
3. Relatively cheaper
What is another type of Dynamic RAM (DRAM)?
Another type of DRAM is Synchronized DRAM.
What is the current trend in SDRAM?
DDR2 SDRAM
What are 3 characteristics of DDR2 SDRAM?
1. Runs at 400MHz
2. 64 bit wide bus
3. 3.2GB/s data exchange rate
What are 3 characteristics of Static RAM (SRAM)?
1. Does not need to be refreshed but does need power
2. Faster than DRAM (SRAM runs at 500 - 1000Mhz)
3. 10 times more expensive
Where is SRAM found in the computer?
On the cache memory of the CPU.
What are 4 types of secondary storage?
1. Hard Drives
2. Floppy Drives
3. Flash Drives
4. Optical Drives
How does a Hard Drive work?
A hard drive uses electric pulses to generate a magnetic field in order to change the polarity of the iron particles within the disk coating.
What are the 7 parts of the hard drive?
1. Access Mechanism
2. Access Arms
3. Read/Write Heads
4. Cylinder
5. Disks
6. Tracks
7. Sectors
What are tracks?
Concentric circles on the hard drive disk used for storing data as magnetized bits.
What are sectors?
Portions of the hard drive tracks.
What 5 characteristics are used in determining what type of Hard Drive to purchase?
1. Size
2. Spindle Speed
3. Connection Type
4. Cache/Buffer
5. Manufacturer
What are the 3 typical sizes of hard drives?
1. 120GB
2. 250GB
3. 320GB
What is the typical price per gigabyte for a hard drive?
50 cents per gigabyte
What are the 2 typical spindle speeds for a hard drive?
1. 5400RPM
2. 7200RPM
What are the 2 connection types for a hard drive?
1. IDE
2. SATA
What are the 4 characteristics of the IDE connection type?
1. Slower Speed (100-133 mbps)
2. Ultra-wide Ribbon Cable that is not very flexible and clutters the case with its bulky size
3. Need to reboot after each plug/unplug
4. Old standard, but still compatible on all motherboards
What are the 4 characteristics of the SATA connection type?
1. Faster Speed (150mbps)
2. Thinner cable that improves airflow within the case
3. Hot-swappable
4. Becoming standard for all drives (CD, DVD, HD)
What does hot-swappable mean?
Hot-swappable means that the hard drive can be removed while the computer is powered on.
What are the 3 Cache/Buffer sizes for a hard drive?
1. 4MB
2. 8MB
3. 16MB
Who are the 3 major manufacturers of hard drives?
1. Maxtor
2. Seagate
3. Western Digital
What does RAID stand for?
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
What is RAID?
A large number of small hard drive disks with a controller chip.
What 2 characteristics make RAID attractive?
1. Improves access time
2. Improves reliability
How does RAID improve access time?
It delivers data over multiple paths simultaneously.
How does RAID improve reliability?
By automatically restoring data on a failed disk.
What are 2 common RAID configurations?
1. RAID0 (Striping)
2. RAID1 (Mirroring)
What does the RAID0 configuration do?
RAID0 writes data sequentially to different disks. If 1 disk fails, all fail.
What 2 things is the RAID0 configuration suitable for?
1. Fast access
2. Large files
What does the RAID1 configuration do?
RAID1 writes the same data on different disks. If 1 disk fails, there is a duplicate to take its place.
What is the RAID1 configuration suitable for?
1. Data security
Besides RAID0 and RAID1, what 2 things can more advanced RAID configurations do?
More advanced RAID configurations can enhance speed and enhance security at the same time.
What is perpendicular recording?
Perpendicular recording is when the bits of the hard drive stand up parallel to each other so that more bits can fit within the same space.
How does perpendicular recording work?
The bits of the hard drive are flipped to store data on each side.
How are the bits arranged in a hard drive that does traditional recording?
A hard drive that does traditional recording has its bits lying flat down.
What is the difference between traditional recording and perpendicular recording?
Perpendicular recording can store more information than traditional recording.
What are the 4 types of optical storage?
1. CD ROM
2. DVD ROM
3. CDR/CDRW
4. DVD+RW/DVD-RW
What are the 4 characteristics of a CD ROM?
1. Contains Land
2. Contains Pit
3. Can hold up to 780MB
4. Can run at a speed of 150Kb/s (1x) to 7.8MB/s (52x)
What is the land on a CD ROM?
The flat part of the disk surface the reflects light.
What is the pit on a CD ROM?
The small scratch on the disk surface that scatters light.
What are the 4 characteristics of a DVD ROM?
1. Contains smaller lands than CD ROM
2. Contains smaller pits than CD ROM
3. Can hold up to 4.7GB
4. Can run at a speed of 1.32MB/s (1x) to 10.56MB/s (8x)
What is the difference between a CD-R and CD-RW?
A CD-R can only be written on once while a CD-RW can be written many times (normally more than 1000 times)
What is the difference between DVD+RW and DVD-RW?
They are a different format, but it is not noticeable.
If you had to choose between a DVD+RW and a DVD-RW drive, what should you purchase?
You should purchase a drive that can handle both DVD+RW and DVD-RW.
What does a video card do?
A video card takes the representation of a screen from the memory and converts it to actual video signal.
What is a frame buffer?
The stored image that the video card uses and converts to actual video signal.
Can there be more than one frame buffer?
Yes, there can be more than one frame buffer.
What must the video card be provided with in order to construct images?
The video card must be provided with a set of instructions from the microprocessor in order to construct images.
What was the old method of constructing images on a computer?
The old method was when the main system processor would describe every pixel in the frame buffer and the video card would then display it.
What is the modern method of constructing images on a computer?
The modern method is when the processor sends instructions to the video card using a standard OpenGL language and the video card creates the image.
What are the 3 complicated things that video cards have to to do?
1. 2-D Acceleration
2. 3-D Acceleration
3. Z-Buffering
What is 2-D Acceleration?
The moving of windows around the screen.
What is 3-D Acceleration?
3-D Acceleration is the moving around of complex objects.
What is Z-buffering?
Z-buffering is figuring out what is actually visible if objects are on top of one another.
What are the 3 determinants of video card performance?
1. Processor speed
2. Memory
3. Bus width
What are the 2 characteristics of video card processor speed?
1. Frequency
2. Instructions
How is the frequency measured in video card processor speed?
Number of calculations per second.
What type of instructions are used in video card processing?
RISC instructions
What are the 2 types of memory used in video cards?
1. Dedicated Memory
2. Shared Memory with system RAM
What is the difference between the video card's dedicated memory versus shared memory?
The dedicated memory is faster because the shared memory uses memory from the system RAM thus making it slower.
What is the bus width of the video card?
The electrical path through which data is exchanged with the memory.
What is the problem and solution for video recording on a computer?
The problem: Video images take up enormous amounts of space.

The solution: Video compression
How does video compression work?
Video compression takes a big data stream and represents it in a way that is dramatically smaller and approximately the same quality as the original.
What does video decompression do?
Video decompression efficiently restores the original from the compressed stream.
What 2 things are needed to perform video compression/decompression?
1. A dedicated piece of hardware (codec)
2. A fast computer with compression/decompression software
What is an input device?
A piece of equipment used to capture information and commands.
What are 5 examples of input devices?
1. Keyboard
2. Mouse
3. Scanner
4. Wii Remote
5. Camera
What is an output device?
A piece of equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise put computer messages into a form that humans can recognize
What are 5 examples of output devices?
1. LCD Monitor
2. CRT Monitor
3. Printer
4. Projector
5. Speakers
What 2 characteristics must be considered when purchasing an LCD/CRT monitor?
1. Resolution
2. Refresh Rate
What is resolution?
The level of detail that a monitor can display.
What is refresh rate?
The speed of at which the monitor's image updates.
What are the 2 types of connections that can be used for monitors?
1. VGA
2. DVI
What are 3 characteristics of the VGA connection for a monitor?
1. Analog signal
2. Standard to CRT monitors
3. Old standard
How does the video card use the VGA connection?
The video card converts the CPU signal into VGA signal which causes some loss in quality
What are the 3 characteristics of the DVI connection for a monitor?
1. Digital video interface
2. Standard connection for LCDs, Plasmas, and Projectors
3. New standard
How does the video card use the DVI connection?
The video card takes the CPU's digital signal which is then sent directly to the monitor without any conversion because it is all digital.
What single hardware component within the computer do all of the inputs and outputs connect with?
The motherboard.
Where do you find the PCI slots, RAM slots, and CPU slots on the motherboard?
Check with picture.
What is a bit?
A bit is a binary digit, represented by 0 or 1
What is a byte?
A byte is 8 bits.
What does 1 byte represent?
A single character.
What number system does the computer use to do computations?
The binary number system (0s and 1s)
How are letters and symbols represented in a computer?
Letters and symbols are represented by 8 bits (or a byte) or 16 bits (2 bytes).
What are the 2 character sets used for letters and symbols on a computer?
1. 8 digit ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Exchange)
2. 16 digit Unicode
What does a character set do?
A character set takes binary code and converts it into characters.
What is the current character set standard?
Unicode UTF-16
What are the 7 types of computers?
1. Supercomputer
2. Mainframe
3. Minicomputer
4. Workstation
5. Personal Computer (Desktop)
6. Net PC
7. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
What are the 2 characteristics of supercomputers?
1. Fastest (used in science, engineering, weather forecast, etc)
2. Highly sophisticated
What are the 4 characteristics of mainframes?
1. Large general-purpose computer
2. Flexibility is limited
3. Relatively expensive ranging from $500,000 to $5M
4. Supports hot-swap
What 2 characteristics make mainframes large general-purpose computers?
1. Supports large storage devices
2. Supports large number of users
What are the 2 characteristics of minicomputers?
1. Used for general applications where mainframe is too expensive
2. Fault tolerant
What are 2 features make minicomputers fault tolerant?
1. Redundancy
2. Automatic failure recovery
What is a workstation?
A desktop computer with powerful graphics and mathematical capabilities and the ability to perform several complicated tasks at once.
What are personal computers?
General-purpose desktop computers.
What is a Net PC?
A personal computer with a relatively slow processor and limited primary memory.
What is a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)?
A device that supports an individual by keeping notes, recording information, and communicating with others.
What are 2 operating systems for PDAs?
1. Windows Mobile
2. PalmOS
What is the current trend for PDAs?
Smartphone, which is a cellphone and a PDA all in one device (like a Treo)
What are 2 types of computer system architectures?
1. Distributed processing
2. Centralized processing
What is distributed processing?
A computer system architecture that distributes the processing work among multiple computers linked by a communications network.
What are 2 types of distributed processing?
1. Client/Server computing
2. Peer-to-Peer computing
What is Client/Server computing?
Client/server computing is the splitting of processing between clients and servers by assigning functions to the machine most able to perform the function.
What is a modern implementation of Client/Server computing?
The Application Server
What does the application server do in Client/Server computing?
The application server delivers program code to client computers only when users log on.
What is 1 form of Client/Server computing?
Network computing
What is network computing?
The assignment of thin/dumb client computers that use servers to do the bulk of computer processing.
What is Peer-to-Peer computing?
Peer-to-Peer computing is when computers are linked via the internet or private networks so that they can share data, disk space, and processing power.
What is centralized processing?
A type of computer system architecture where all the processing is accomplished by one large central computer.
Basics of IT Software
Basics of IT Software
What is software?
Instructions that are executed via hardware to perform a task.
How does software communicate with the processor?
Software is written in a computer language which is converted into instructions that a processor can understand.
What are the 2 types of software?
1. System Software
2. Application Software
What does system software do?
Manages the computer's resources for various tasks and coordinates the functioning of all devices
What are examples of system software?
Operating systems such as Windows, Linux, MacOS
What is an operating system?
A type of system software that manages the resources of the computer.
What are the 3 tasks of operating systems?
1. Accepts commands
2. Interprets commands to turn them into instructions for the CPU to understand
3. Controls how users and other programs interact with computer hardware
What does an operating system need in order to communicate with hardware?
A driver.
What is a driver?
Software that the operating system needs to communicate with hardware.
What are the 4 management activities performed by an operating system?
1. Memory management
2. Process management
3. Device management
4. Information management
What are 2 types of operating system extensions?
1. Network Operating Systems
2. Utility Programs
What is a network operating system?
An operating system with network capabilities
What are 2 examples of a network operating system?
1. Novell Netware
2. Windows 2000 Server
What are utility programs?
Prewritten programs for routine, repetitive tasks, such as copying, clearing primary storage, and formatting disks.
What are 2 ways to obtain utility programs?
1. It comes with the Operating System
2. You can buy them as packaged software such as Norton Utility and Anti-virus
What is application software?
Software used for specific information processing needs.
What are 4 examples of application software?
1. Office automation (MSFT Office)
2. Manufacturing automation
3. Marketing Systems (CRM)
4. Decision Support Systems(DSS, EIS)
What are hypervisors/Virtual Machine Monitors?
Types of application software that can function as virtual operating systems.
What are 4 examples of Virtual Machine Monitors/hypervisors?
1. Microsoft Virtual PC
2. VMWare
3. XenSource
4. Parallels Desktop (Mac Users)
What are 2 benefits of hypervisors/Virtual Machine Monitors?
1. Test programs on virtual PCs before installing them on your main PC
2. Network with the virtual PC
What is a programming environment?
A location where code can be written.
What are the 4 generations of programming languages?
1. Machine Code
2. Assembly Language
3. High Level Language
4. Fourth Generation
What are 2 characteristics of Machine Code?
1. Need to specify the location for each instruction, the operation code and the location of the operand
2. Uses binary coded instructions
What are 2 characteristics of Assembly Code?
1. Specifies the operation code and the name of the variables
2. Uses symbolic coded instructions
What are 2 characteristics of High Level Language?
1. C++ and Java
2. Uses brief statements
What are 2 characteristics of Fourth Generation Language?
1. SQL Dirty English Code
2. Uses natural statements
What are the 2 approaches to programming?
1. Traditional Technology Approach
2. Object-Oriented Approach
What are the 2 views of the Traditional Technology Approach to programming?
1. Information view
2. Procedure view
What is the information view?
All information is stored within a system.
What is the procedure view?
All procedures are contained within the system instructions.
What does a procedure do?
Manipulates or changes information.
What is the traditional technology approach for programming good for?
Simple tasks
What 4 characteristics make the Traditional Technology Approach a problem?
1. Messy
2. Task-Oriented
3. Hard to Reuse
4. Hard to Check Error
How does the object-oriented programming approach work?
Program sends a message to an object in order to perform the embedded procedure assigned to that object.
What are 5 advantages of the object-oriented approach to programming?
1. Combines data & procedures into a single object
2. Object data is encapsulated from the rest of the system
3. Creates reusable code
4. Reduces the time and cost of writing software
5. Allows for visual programming
What is visual programming?
An object-oriented approach where objects can be selected or arranged rather than writing codes.
What does object-oriented programming allow developers to do?
Mimic real world items and concepts.
What 2 characteristics of an object?
1. Attributes
2. Actions
What is the term that describes the attributes of an object?
A class.
What are the 5 primary concepts of object-oriented technologies?
1. Information
2. Procedures
3. Classes
4. Objects
5. Messages
What are the 4 nice properties of object-oriented programming?
1. Encapsulation
2. Inheritance
3. Polymorphism
4. Modularity
What is encapsulation?
Hiding information
What is modularity?
Putting code into modules so that it can be used many times without ruining the code.
What is an object-oriented program created by Microsoft?
Visual Basic
What is nice about Visual Basic?
It allows a developer to insert objects without the knowledge of the underlying code.
Does all object-oriented programming have to be visual?
No, VBScript is object-oriented but not visual.
What is the difference between packaged software and SaaS software?
Packaged software has closed-source code (cannot be changed) that can be downloaded or purchased.

SaaS software is accessed via the internet.
What is the long name of SaaS software?
Software as a Service software
What type of application is needed to access SaaS software?
Internet Browser
The packaged software of Microsoft Excel can be equivalent to what SaaS software?
Google Spreadsheets
What are 2 types of SaaS software?
1. Application Service Provider
2. On-Demand Software
What is Application Service Provider (ASP) SaaS Software?
Software created and maintained by a third party that is offered via the internet for a monthly fee.
What is On-Demand Software?
Software provided by a vendor
What is an advantage of ASP software?
It's cheaper than On-Demand Software
What is a disadvantage of ASP software?
It is accessed via the internet, so if the internet goes down the applications will be unavailable.
What is TCO?
Total Cost of Ownership
What are 2 types of costs of TCO for IT?
1. Indirect
2. Direct
What percentage of TCO does hardware and software acquisitions account for?
20%
How expensive is TCO compared to purchasing a PC?
3 times as much more expensive
Do the hidden costs of TCO make distributed architecture or centralized mainframes more expensive?
Distributed architecture
What are the 3 categories of the hidden costs of IT?
1. Hardware/software acquisition, installation, and training
2. Support and Maintenance
3. Infrastructure, Downtime, Space and Energy
What 2 views must be used to decide whether to outsource IT or not?
1. Value chain
2. Resource-based
What 2 problems should a manager be aware of when outsourcing IT?
1. Shirking
2. Other Opportunistic Behavior
Introduction to IS: Systems Development
Introduction to IS: Systems Development
What does SA&D stand for?
System Analysis & Development
What is System Analysis & Development?
The process of analyzing and developing software
What are the 2 types of definitions for an Information System?
1. Technical
2. Business
What is the technical definition of an information system?
A system that accepts data from its environment as input and transforms or processes that data in order to produce information as output.
What is the business definition of an information system?
An arrangement of people, processes, data, networks, and technology designed to solve organizational problems or create new opportunities.
What are 2 examples of IS?
1. E-commerce website
2. The university registration system
What are the 3 ways to acquire information systems?
1. Packaged, off the shelf (COTS)
2. Outsourced, custom development (consultants)
3. In-house development
What does COTS stand for?
Commercial-Off-The-Shelf software
What 4 points must you consider regardless of the information system acquisition strategy?
1. Understand requirements
2. Evaluate options
3. Consider integration/implementation issues
4. Decide how maintenance will be handled
Who are the 4 parties involved in SA&D?
1. End-users
2. Business managers/executives
3. IS Staff
4. Systems analysts
Who makes up the End-users?
Non-IS professionals who will use the system
What are the 3 tasks of the End-users?
1. Project identification
2. Requirements definition
3. Testing
What are the 3 tasks of the Business managers/executives?
1. Project identification and selection
2. Requirements definition
3. Resource allocation
What are the 3 tasks of IS Staff?
1. Database administration
2. LAN administration
3. Telecommunications expert
What tasks are the Systems Analysts involved in?
All aspects of the project; they write blueprints to be sent to the programmers
How fast is the number of computer systems analysts supposed to grow by 2014?
Much faster than average
What percentage of IS projects are successful?
34%
What percentage of IS projects are failures?
15%
What percentage of IS projects are challenged?
51%
What are the top 3 reasons for IS project failure?
1. Lack of user involvement
2. Lack of executive support
3. Unclear requirements
What are the 6 phases of the IS Life Cycle?
1. Requirements
2. Analysis
3. Design
4. Implementation
5. Maintenance
6. Retirement
What is the purpose of the Requirements phase?
To determine client needs and extract client requirements
What are 4 ways that clients' needs are determined in the Requirement phase?
1. Survey
2. Focus Group
3. Interview
4. Joint Application Development (JAD)
What is Joint Application Development?
It is when the requirements are set and then reviewed again to see if they are really needed. What they say is needed is sometimes not.
What is the documentation that is completed at the end of the Requirements phase?
The requirements documentation
Is the requirements documentation formal or informal?
Informal
Can the clients' needs determined in the Requirements phase change?
Yes
What are the 3 components that are associated with the Moving Target Problem?
1. Technology changes
2. Management can change
3. Other changes can occur such as M&A
What can the Moving Target Problem do to the requirements?
It can change the requirements while the IS is being developed.
Is there a solution for the moving target problem? If not, what can we do?
No. We can try to minimize the probability of the moving target problem affecting the IS project.
What type of modeling do you used during the Requirements phase?
Case Modeling
What does a Case Model/Diagram do?
Shows what an information system will do in the business rather than how it will do it.
Are case models used in defining requirements?
Yes
What are 3 components of Case Modeling in the requirements phase?
1. Actors external to the system
2. A case that shows a complete sequence of action initiated by the actor
3. Iteration
What is iteration?
Repetitive and constant updating; creating new versions; versioning
What is the purpose of the Analysis phase?
To create the Specification document
What is the specification document?
A more formal, binding contract, service level agreement that states what the company wants
What 3 components are included in the specification document?
1. What the information system does
2. Budget, staffing needs, deliverables and deadlines
3. Signature from client before the project management plan
What happens in the Design phase?
The development team decides how the IS is to be developed
What are the 3 processes that occur during the Design phase?
1. Break up project into modules
2. Determine algorithms for each module (how they perform the tasks)
3. Determine the data structure for each (the data that the module will operate on)
What is a module?
A part of the information system that is relatively independent of others
What is the resulting document of the Design phase?
The Design document
What is the Design document?
A translation or instruction for programmers
What happens during the Implementation phase?
Designs of the modules are given to the programming team to translate into appropriate programming language.
After the programming team translates the module designs during the Implementation phase, what happens to the modules?
Modules are then integrated to form the information system
What happens in the Maintenance phase?
After implementation and installation, the information system is modified to remove remaining faults, extend its functionalities, or adapt to new changes.
What is corrective maintenance?
Removing faults after the implementation phase
What is perfective maintenance?
Removing faults and extending functionalities
What is adaptive maintenance?
Fixing the IS to adapt to changes
What fraction of IS costs go to development? What fraction of IS costs go to maintenance?
1/4 of costs go to Development
3/4 of costs go to Maintenance
When is the Retirement phase?
When the IS no longer performs a useful service
What is the retirement of an old IS normally accompanied by?
The initiation of a new IS
What does SDLC stand for?
Systems Development Life Cycle
What is the difference between the SDLC vs. the SDLC Model?
The SDLC is the actual steps performed when building software.
The SDLC Model is the theoretical steps that should be followed.
What is the ideal SDLC?
A complete run through with no mistakes at each phase of Requirements, Analysis, Design, Implementation, Maintenance, and Retirement
What is the oldest and most traditional SDLC model?
The Waterfall Model
What are 3 characteristics of the Waterfall Model?
1. Linear in Nature
2. Drawn with feedback loops
3. If an error is found, move back to the previous phase until the error is corrected
What is 1 advantage of the Waterfall Model?
1. Can perfect the product after numerous corrections are made to get it right
What are 2 disadvantages of the Waterfall Model?
1. It cannot show the order of events or different versions of an artifact
2. Exponential increase in costs
What is an artifact?
A constituent component of information systems, such as a specification document, a case model, or a manual.
Suppose a problem is found in the SDLC. Will the problem be more expensive to fix in the beginning or ending phases of the cycle? Why?
The problem will be more expensive to fix in the ending phases because at the ending phases most of the IS has been invested in and been established.
When does the analysis phase actually occur?
All the time during the SDLC
The basic software development process is iterative. What is iteration?
The process of updating each successive version, intending to bring it closer to its target than its predecessor
What term is analogous to Miller's Law?
Incrementation
What is incrementation?
The process of concentrating on only 7 units of information at one time
How does incrementation handle larger amounts of information?
It uses Stepwise Refinement
What are the 3 characteristics of Stepwise Refinement(Incrementation)?
1. Concentrate on the currently most important aspects
2. Postpone aspects that are less critical
3. Handle every aspect but in order of importance
Are iteration and incrementation used in conjunction with each other? How?
Yes. Iteration refers to the constant updating of the software while incrementation means that they focus on the most important parts to update.
Is there really a single requirements phase and design phase during the SDLC?
No, there are multiple instances of the requirements phase and design phase.
What is workflow?
Different activities that occur within each incrementation of the project
How is workflow incorporated into the SDLC?
Workflow is carried out over the entire SDLC. Its just that there are times when one workflow of one phase dominates over the other
Where do the iterations occur?
Iterations occur within the incrementations of a project
What is the difference between the Classical Paradigm of the SDLC vs. the Object-Oriented Paradigm of the SDLC?
The Classical Paradigm uses phases.

The Object-Oriented Paradigm uses workflow.
How are phases different from workflow?
Phases divide processes into different steps and do each step at a time. There are different stages.

Workflow consists of different activities that occur at different increments at the same time.
What is the name of the evolutionary SDLC model?
The Spiral Model
Does the Spiral Model use phases or workflow?
Workflow
How does the Spiral Model work?
The project begins at the center of the model, then works its way around. At certain points, you stop and think about the project and then move back.
What are the 5 primary reasons as to why IS projects fail?
1. Unclear or missing business requirements
2. Skipping SDLC phases
3. Failure to manage project scope
4. Failure to manage project plan
5. Changing technology
What 2 problems occur in "Failure to manage project scope"?
1. Scope creep
2. Feature creep
What is scope creep?
Failure of the manager to control the size or scope of the project. The scope just keeps increasing.
What is feature creep?
Failure of the manager to recognize what features are needed and which ones are not. Instead they add new and neat features that may not be necessary.
Organizing Data: From Spreadsheets to Databases
Organizing Data: From Spreadsheets to Databases
What is a spreadsheet?
A table of information or data
What are 2 programs that work with spreadsheets?
1. Microsoft Excel
2. Google Spreadsheets
What are the 5 elements of a spreadsheet?
1. Rows
2. Columns
3. Cells
4. Worksheets
5. Workbook
How are the Rows in a spreadsheet organized?
By numbers
How are the Columns in a spreadsheet organized?
By letters
What is a cell?
A box where the row and column intersect.
What is a worksheet?
A spreadsheet with multiple cells
What is a workbook?
A file that contains multiple worksheets.
What is the limit on the number of rows and columns?
Rows are limited to 65500
Columns are limited to 255
What is the naming scheme for cells? Give an example.
Column, Row (ex: B3)
What is the single quote (') used for in the formula space of the spreadsheet program?
It is used to indicate the path where the cell is obtaining information from.
What does "Click-and-Drag" do in the spreadsheet program?
It continues a series or pattern of information across other cells.
What does the "$" do in the spreadsheet program?
It serves as a lock making the column or row absolute instead of relative.
What does F4 do when using the $ in the formula bar?
F4 will toggle the possible combinations of $ in the formula
What command in the spreadsheet program is used to see the actual equations behind each cell?
Ctrl + ~
When given a data set, where should you put variables on the spreadsheet?
Variables should be put in the columns
When given a data set, where should you put individual cases on the spreadsheet?
Individual cases should be put in the rows
What are 5 advantages of using a spreadsheet program?
1. Very flexible
2. Use to present work
3. No need to be restrained to a variable and case format
4. Insert charts and format cells
5. It is good for both calculations and for reporting
What idea is Access built upon?
A relational database
What 3 tools does Access incorporate?
1. Data Management
2. Query
3. Reporting
What 2 types of queries can Access use?
1. GUI
2. SQL
Can Access be used for all websites?
No, only small websites
What are 4 examples of a database?
1. Student database like Testudo
2. Purchasing using your credit card
3. Using the school library
4. Book a hotel with a travel agent
What is the file based approach?
Transferring files that contain data, and overwriting old ones.
What are 2 limitations to the file based approach?
1. Different applications are used for different services
2. Each application defines and manages its own type of data
What are the 4 issues with the file based approach?
1. Separation and isolation of data
2. Duplication of data
3. Data dependence
4. File format compatibility
What does the separation and isolation of data mean?
Each program maintains a set of its own data and users of one program may be unaware of potentially useful data held by other programs.
What does duplication of data mean?
If the same data is held by different programs, space is wasted and there is potential for different values or formats for the same item.
What does data dependence mean?
The file structure depends on the specific application
What does file format compatibility mean?
Applications written in different languages
What is the solution to the file based approach of maintaining databases?
Database Management Systems (DBMS)
What is a Database Management System?
A software system that enables users to define, create, and maintain a database and provide controlled access to this database
What are 4 advantages of the Database approach?
1. Data Definition Language (DFL)
2. Data Manipulation Language (DML)
3. Controlled access
4. A "view" mechanism
What is a "view" mechanism?
Each user has her or her own view of the database. They chose what data they want to see and what data they do not want to see.
What are the 7 disadvantages of DBMS?
1. Complexity
2. Size
3. Cost
4. Additional hardware costs
5. Cost of conversion
6. Performance
7. Higher impact of failure
What are 3 examples of database software?
1. Microsoft Access
2. Microsoft SQL Server or MySQL
3. Oracle
What is a relational database?
A group of tables related to one another by common fields
How is the table set up in a database?
Each row contains the data for a single record.
Each column represents a specific data value
In Access, what is the name for the cell that contains the data value?
The field
Do all records have the same fields?
Yes, all records have the same fields
What are 3 ways to utilize the data from the database tables?
1. Query
2. Forms
3. Reports
What does a query do?
Extracts and integrates the data from one or more tables and combines the data into one
What does a form do?
Allow for viewing or entering of additional data
What does a report do?
Extracting and compiles updated data from the database into a format used for printing
What 2 things can you do with Access?
1. Create files to manage your contacts, classes, or finance
2. Create a database to manage customer information on a website