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31 Cards in this Set

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lesion of the amygdala (bilateral) produces
kluver-Bucy syndrome

hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior
2cm lesion at the convexity (coronal suture) w/ dural tail

dx?
associated sx?
origin cell?
is there a family predisp?

what characteristic is specific to the malignant form of this?

most common locations?

pathological findings?
meningioma

seizure, hemiparesis

arise from arachnoid cap cells

usually, meningiomas = sporatic and isolated; family hx may be sig for NF2-->
--bilat acoustic neuroma
--unilat acoustic neuroma + first degree relative
-- or unilat acoust neuroma + schwannoma, meningioma, acoustinc neuroma, neurofibroma, glioma, juvenile postsubcapsular lens opacity

brain invasion

convexity + parasaggital

EMA and vimentin stain+
psamomma bodies and whorls
frontal lobe lesion produces
disinhibition and deficits in concentratoin, orientation and judgement

may have reemergent primitive reflexes
Right parietal lobe lesion
spatial neglect (agnosia of the contralateral (left) side of the world)
reticular activating system (midbrain) lesion produces
reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness -- can cause coma
myelination of CNS - origin?
PNS?
CNS = oligodendrocytes - once cell myelinates many neuronal axons - forms much of the white matter -- origin = NE = have NISSLE

PNS = Schwann cells = neural crest, myelinates one oxon only (many schwann to one neuron)
lesion of the mamillary bodies bilaterally porduces
wernicke-korsakoff syndrome

wernicke: confusion, opthalmoplegia, ataxia

korsakoff = memory loss, confabulation, personality changes
basal ganglia lesions
tremor at rest, chorea, or athetosis

resting tremor = pill rolling tremor seen in parkinsons

chorea = sudden jerky purposeless movements - dancing in a sense - seen in huntingotons

athetosis = slow writing movements of the fingers (snakelike) -- also seen in huntingtons
cerebellum hemisphere lesions
intention tremor (characteristic of damage to the cerebellum = zigzag motion when point toward a target)

limb ataxia - dysmetria

dysdiadichokinesias (can't to finger to nose or heel to shin)

speech may be disarthric or scanning


hemispheres are laterally located and thus affect lateral limbs
damage to schwann cells results in what?
guillan barre
acoustic neuroma
cerebellar vermis lesions
Imbalance: Romberg + (with eyes open & closed) --ddx from DCML/dorsal column lesion where Romberg + (but nl with eyes open) -- can't do tandem giat

Truncal Ataxia = can't sit unsupported

Eyes: nystagmus, ocular dysmetria, poor pursuit
HIV infects these nerve cells
microglia = mutlinucleated giant cells in the CNS (mphages of the CNS)
subthalamic nucleus lesion
contralateral hemiballismus (this is actually part of the basal ganglia)

this is sudden wild flailing of 1 arm +/- 1 leg

commonly seen in lacunar stroke in a patient with a hx of htn, dm, hx smoking
destroyed cells in MS
oligodendroglia (CNS myelinators --myelination of many oxons)
hippocampus leions
anterograde amnesia = inability to make new memories
PPRF lesion
eyes look toward hemiplegia

(lesion is going to be in the pons which and grabs the CST -- so hemiplegia is contralateral to the lesion here)
function of leptin
inhibits lateral area of the hypothal (suppresses hunger)

increases activatiy of ventromedial area (encourages satiety)

signals satiety!!
frontal eye fields lesion

blood supply?
eyes look toward the lesion

located in the frontal lobe (premotor cortex)

MCA
fuction of the cerebellum

input via what fibers?
from where?
to what?

output?

lateral vs medial cerebellar function
maintains posture, muscle tone, and voluntary muscle coordination

input = climbing/mossy fibers
contralat cortex>>middle cerebaellar peduncle>>cerebellum

OR

ispilateral body input>>inf cereb peduncle>>cerebellum

OUTPUT = Pj fibers
used to modulate movement
deep nuclei of cerebellum>>super cerebell peduncle >>ipislat cortex

lateral = vol mov't of limbs
medial = trunk (ataxia ang gait and balance)
tremor that worsens when holding posuter is a _____

tx?
essential/postural tremor

AD

pts like to use ETOH to self medicate , we like to use BBs
basal ganglia = what 3 structures

fucntion
caudate, putamen, globus pallidus

regulates voluntary vs involuntary movement - postural adjustments
thalamus funciton

blood supply of ventral thalamus? function?

blood supply of LGN and MGN and fucntion?
major relaty for ascending sensory information that ultimately reaches the cortex

ventral thalamus = posterior communicatingl artery from the ICA
VPL = body sensation (all 5)
VPM= facial sensation (CN 5)
Venttral anterior and ventral lateral necule = motor

LGN (visual - projects via optic radiations to the occipital cortex) and the MGN (auditory)
-- both = Posterior cerebral via the basilar
-LG Anterior choroidal via the ICA
basal ganglia input?

output?

dopamine's role?

loss of dopamine/

direct path?
indirect path?
input = SN pars compacta (rel of dopamine) + cortex>>striatum (caudate and putamen)

output=globus pallidus interna and SN pars retinulata>>thalamus (modulate mov't)

direct = stimulation increases intended movement

indirect = stimulation decreases/inhibits UNintendend movement

dopamine turn the on on (direct on = intendend movement) and the off of = no unintended movement

no dopamine = parkinsons = no voluntary movement + uninteded mov't = resting tremor
what composes the limbic system?

funciton?
cingulate gyrus
hippocampus
fornix
mamillary bodies
amygdala
olfactory bulb

feeding, fleeing, fighting, feeling and fucking (5 f's)
atrophy of the striatum causes what?
chorea - think Huntingtons dz - no ACH here thus can't excite direct path or inhibit indirect path
subthalamic nucleus acts in what pathway

lesion here is usually due to what and is caused by what?
indirect pathway of movement modulation by basal ganglia

lesion = due to pt with long history of htn having a lacunar stroke, thus subthal lesion -- affects contralateral side

sx: sudden, wild flailing of one arm +/- leg = hemiballism

can't inhibit the thalamus via the globus pallidus without the STN
essential/posture trauma vs intention tremor


resting tremor?
essential tremor = worse when holding posture = AD; pt use ETOH here to decrease it --tx with BB

intention = slow zigzag motion when pointed toward target = cerebellar dysfunction

resting tremor = pill rolling tremor = degeneratoin of SN and lost dopamine = parkinsons
thalamus locatoin
surrounds 3rd ventricle
paired
between cortex and midbrain
Romberg sign

what is it? sig?
steady stance with feet together and eyes open - unsteady with eyes closed

implies deficit in joint position sense NOT cerebellar function
testing for ataxia is best elicited by?
tandem gait
decreased arm swing during walking is sig for ____
extrapyramidal disorerders