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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-Otto Loewi discovered
-first NT discovered
-found in brain, spinal cord, NMJ, PNS
-Inhibitory NT (calms you the fuck down)

-main circuts: cholinergic system, midbrain nuclei
-most abundant NT in body
-acts at the ionotropic glutamate receptor (there are many different kinds, but they all respond to glutamate)
-when glutamate binds, calcium flows, causing depolarization, an EPSP
-Gamma Amino Butyric Acid
-made from glutamate
-second most abundant NT, after glutamate
-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) takes off the carboxyl group from glutamate
-main receptor - GABA-A

-when GABA binds to GABA-A receptor, channel opens and CL- enters the cell, hyperpolarizing the cell and creating IPSP
-can be excitatory or inhibitory
-one of the simplest amino acids
-binds to the NMDA-glutamate receptor (GABA does too)
-if in the cerebral cortex, it's excitatory
-if in the brain stem or spinal cord it is inhibitory in the same way that GABA is-- it binds to the glycine receptor and opens Cl- channel
-amine NT
-made from tryptophan

-found in Raphe nuclei
-amine NT
-made from phenylalanine (tyrosine)

-found in the top of the brainstem area - substantia nigra, ventral tegmentum
-amine NT
-made from phenylalanine (tyrosine)
-amine NT
-made from histidine

-found in hypothalamus, has an arousing effect on the entire brain
sympathetic NS
-exciting! (fight or flight)
-uses norepinephrine
parasympathetic NS
-rest and relaxation
-uses ACh
-something that mimics the sympathetic nervous system
-activate norepinephrine synapses
-increase HR, BP etc.

-ex. cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, Ritalin.
-block norepinephrine in some way
-mimicking the effects of the parasympathetic NS
-agents that block and disrupt the parasympathetic NS
peptide NT
-chains of amino acids held together by a peptide bond
-polypeptides can be found in the same places where opium acts on the brain
synaptic plasticity
-the ability of synapses to change their strength
-has to do with learning and memory
sea slug
-Erik Kandel studied it
-Aplysia california
-very simple NS
-used it to figure out the physiology of learning
-protects delicate organs by withdrawing them when stimulated
-when neurons become accustomed to certain stimulations and stop firing
-the opposite of habituation
-if you give something a big shock, it becomes more sensitive to it
-When more NTs flow, the action potential is more likely to occur
synaptic strength modification
Changes the amount of NTs that flow; making action potentials more or less likely to happen
seizure, convulsion
-an explosion of out of control electric activity in the body
-convulsion is what happens to the body, seizure is what happens to the brain

-overstimulation can cause it; too much caffeine or withdrawal from alcohol
-way of recording the average global electrical activity in the brain
pharmacologic and surgical treatments (for seizures)
-seizure medication is often used for bipolar people

Different types of seizure meds
-sedative drugs
-low doses of barbiturates (phenobarbital)
-benzodiazepines (Valium)
-from latin 'droog' - dried plant
-chemical in small amounts that has a significant effect on functioning of the organism
drug abuse
some kind of relationship with some kind of use of the drug which is probelmatic
drug addiction
-involves a more out of control, negative impact on someone's life
-part of someone's core behavior, it isn't necessarily defined by the presence of withdrawal
-a drug that activates a NT receptor that looks like the natural NT
-anything that increases the effects of the synapse
-a drug that blocks a NT receptor and prevents the binding of a natural NT if it comes mosey-ing along
-anything that decreases the effects of the synapse
psychoactive (psychotropic) drugs
-change or move the psyche in some way

-Arecoline (betel nut palm)
caffeine and related molecules
-trimethylxanthine (all derived from xanthine
-blocks adenosine receptors, acting as a stimulant
-comes from the coca plant
-Erythroxylum coca
-used as a local anesthetic because it interferes with the opening and closing of voltage gated channels
-blocks the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin

-seizure, heart attack, stroke
amphetamine and related molecules
-makes neurotransmitter leak from the reuptake transporter (cocaine fully blocks, amphetamine just makes it leak out into the synaptic cleft)
-it's cocaine, but it leaks instead of completely blocking reuptake


OD- heart attack and stroke
-most famous sedative/hypnotic
-slows things down
-GABA facilitator
-~GABA ~effect
-diazepam - Valium
-high addiction potential
-GABA facilitators - enhance the action of GABA; enhancement of chloride flow
-will shut down body if too much is taken in, too much relaxation
-agonist at NACh
-has TTX
-antagonist at NMJ, paralyzes
-doesn't pass BBB
-neuromuscular junction
-part of the solanaceous family
-very toxic
-Nicotiana tabacum
-main effect is in the nervous system
-main receptor the Nicotinic AChR

-produces relaxation and stimulation [kwazy]
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
-ionotropic sodium channel
-agonist is nicotine
-antagonist is tubucurarine
-antagonism at NMJ produces paralysis
botulinum toxin
-produced by bacterium called Clostridium botulinum
-interferes with NT release
-reduces the effectiveness of ACh at the NMJ
lethal injection pharmacology
-thiopental (Sodium Pentothal)
--Barbiturate sedative-hypnotic

-pancuronium (Pavulon)
--used in surgical procedures
--NACh antagonist shuts down lungs

-KCl - heart attack. messes with action potentials because of the sodium influx
execution by lethal injection
-lethal injection first adopted by Oklahoma in 1977
-cocktail takes roughly 10 minutes to work.
-Nebraska doesn't use it

death penalty history and usage
-Hanging, firing squads, and gas chambers were all last used many years ago.
-Texas kills the most people
Opium Poppy
-Papaver somniferum
-from the Mediterranean part of the world
-opium is found as goo in the flowers
-analgesic, cough suppression, diarrhea
-most produced in India
Friedrich Wilhelm Serturner and Morphine
-Discovered and named it morphine in 1803
-10% of opium is morphine
opioid / opiate drugs
-Heroin is 3x more powerful than morphine because it has been acetylated, making it easier to make it through the BBB

Synthetic Opioids
-Methadone, Demerol, etc.
-Fentanyl - 100x more powerful
-etorphine - 1000x more powerful
addictive potential
how addictive something is
opioid peptides
-endorphins are chains of amino acids
-endogenous morphine (endorphins)
-enkephalin - found in the head
distortions of perception
lysergic acid diethylamide
-Discovered by Albert Hoffman
-used for psychology because of its therapeutic potential
-Acts on 5HT-2A receptors
psychedelics / hallucinogens
cause distortions of perception called hallucinations
Psilocybin, psilocin, Psilocybe cubensis
-Psilocybe cubensis is the mushroom
-Psilocybin and psilocin have potent psychedelic effects on the mind that are similar to LSD, only less potent
dimethyltryptamine and ayahuasca
-closely related to serotonin and tryptophan
-ayahuasca is the brewed form of plants that is used for rituals
-comes from the peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii)
-comes from Mexico, the Rio Grande
-Identified by 1897 Arthur Heffter
Albert Hofmann
Discovered LSD
Marina Sabina
a Mexican curandera who did lots of drugs and there are books about her
5HT-2A Receptors
Serotonin receptors that are acted upon by hallucinogens
Cannabis sativa
-Sometimes Cannabis indica
-pain relief, sedation, relaxation, relaxing of muscles to treat muscle spasms, increased appetite
-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary psychoactive chemical
-identified by Raphael Mechoulam in 1964
Raphael Mechoulam
-Discovered THC, did the dog ataxia test
cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids
-GPCR cannabinoid receptors are the most abundant GPCRs in the brain
--bind THC

-anandamide was the first endocannabinoid discovered
retrograde signaling
-endocannabinoids are synthesized in the postsynaptic dendritic spine and then they are released and drift back across the synapse and bind to presynaptic receptors
James Olds
-Learning in rats 1954
-Shock to brain, they like-a da pleasure.
drug abuse and addiction
-bio-psycho-social condition
-pattern of compulsive use of a drug which results in adverse effects in a person's life
reward-reinforcement pathway
-Ventral tegmentem (where the neuron cell bodies are) send to the nucleus accumbens, which are part of the GAYSAL BANGLIA

-The cells in the VTA are dopaminergic; they make dopamine
drug usage and the reward-reinforcement pathway
-repeated use results in a loss of sensitivity, so more is needed to achieve the same feeling
development of the nervous system
-how the brain comes to be and how neurons are wired
-DNA is the blueprint for everything
global structural development
bodies develop in the embryonic stage
origins of brain cells
brain cells develop from embryonic stem cells
different stages of neuronal development
-neuroprogenitor cells develop from stem cells, and then can only become a neuroblast or glioblast, not somatic cells
-neurogenesis is the ability of a neuroblast to turn into a number of different neurons.
-gliogenesis is when glioblasts differentiate into various types of glial cells

-migration - the movement of cells and the extension of axons and dendrites in different directions
Roger Sperry's classic experiment
-Frog's eye experiment
-when he cut the optic nerve and flipped the eyeball it grew back so the frog was seeing upside down, so there were markers on the eye itself that told the nerve how to grow
-chemo-affinity hypothesis
Rita-Levi-Montalcini and neurotrophins
-she discovered neurotrophins, growing neurons and nerve growth factors
-a chemical substance produced by the body that guides growth, differentiation, migration, synaptogenesis of neurons
neuronal plasticity
-ability of neural circuitry to alter its properties

-adjusts axons, dendrites, etc.
types of brain lesion: stroke, tumor, trauma
-Lesion - injury to brain
-Stroke - disruption of blood flow, an increase of pressure in the blood, a weak spot in a blood vessel (aneurysm)
-Tumor - abnormal growth of cells
-Trauma - whack to the head.
Parkinson's disease
lesion in the substantia nigra that inhibits certain types of motor behavior
Alzheimer's dementia or alcoholic dementia
brain cells are killed globally and cause memory problems
invasive and noninvasive imaging methods
-Autopsy (Andreas Vesalius autopsied lots of people and drew their brains)
-Exploratory surgery
-PET Scan

Static brain imaging
-Exploratory brain surgery
-William Rontgen discovered x-rays in 1895

-Computed Axial Tomography 1970's - makes slices of brain to form a 3D image

-Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1980's - works with the magnetic spin
dynamic brain imaging
-Surgical recording / stimulation
-PET Scan
--measures blood flow
surgical recording / stimulation
-The oldest method of brain imaging
-implanting an electrode into the brain and record the action potentials firing
-can find out what images, smells, sounds, etc elicit activation of which part of the brain
Wilder Penfield
-opened peoples skulls up and then stimulated their brains to see what happened, and was one of the first to do it
-discovered a lot of things about the way that the brain is organized
-He did it in humans before he did it in dogs and cats, he would poke somewhere and people would tell him what happened
-noninvasive procedure, put electrodes on the scalp to measure the activity.
-good to measure the overall electrical activity of the brain, it gets its response in milliseconds
-bad at figuring out where the electrical activity is coming from
-uses SQUID technology to measure brain activity with magnetic fields

-pretty good at spatial resolution
-very good at temporal resolution
Super-conducting Quantum Interference Device
-Must be kept very cold. -Millions of dollars.
-Positron emission tomography
-1980's, was the primary brain imaging technology
-images of blood flow
-follows a radioactive chemical that is injected into the bloodstream

-ok at spatial resolution
-bad at temporal resolution
PET isotopes and applications
-fluorine-18 (HL-2 hours)
-oxygen-15 (HL-2 mins)
-carbon-11 (HL-20 mins)

attach isotopes to neurotransmitters to see which receptors hold on to the isotopes
difference images - signal vs. background
subtracting the background noise from images so the changes can be seen more readily
-single photon emission tomography
-cheaper than PET, but less accurate
-BOLD signal- Blood Oxygen Level Dependent signal-- represents increased concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin from increased blood flow
-dynamic imaging technique
-shows images over time
-find difference images

-good at spatial resolution
-ok at temporal resolution
a unit of magnetic field strength, 4 tesla is a lot
-earth's geomagnetic field of earth is about half a gauss
-1 tesla = 10000 gauss
-fMRI measures changes in hemoglobin
-oxygen binds to the hemoglobin, so fMRI can tell what parts of the blood are oxygenated and where the oxygen is going
spatial and temporal resolutions
-spatial resolution - how precisely activity can be located -- blood flow and glucose flow activity

-temporal resolution - how spatial resolution changes over time
fission and fusion bombs
-fission - energy released from the SPLITTING of heavy atomic nuclei (like uranium and plutonium)

-fusion energy released from the joining of light atomic nuclei (like hydrogen)
--give off more energy
Uranium: U-235 and U-238
-U-235 - undergoes fission - .7%
-U-238 - does nothing - 99.3%
enrichment of uranium
4% reactors
85% weapons
Ernest Lawrence
-made the caltron
-invented the first cyclotron in the 1930's, used it for creating isotopes
Robert Oppenheimer
-Manhattan project
-first person to propose the idea of a black hole, a big star that won't stop collapsing
Edward Teller
-was always at odds with Oppenheimer, was obsessed with building the fusion bomb
visual illusions
perceiving something that isn't actually there
sensory perception
-the sequence of all of the events that lead from the reception of some kind of visual stimulus as it passes through receptors and organs through neuropathways of the brain and are analyzed by the nervous system
collection of information from the environment via sensory receptors and organs
the analysis and interpretation of this information by the nervous system, leading to the experience of a particular mental state
sensation in microorganisms
bacteria can sense what's going on in their environments
E. Coli
Escherichia Coli
-found in digestive system
-chemotaxis, swim in a random walk of “runs” and “tumbles”
-sometimes infect contaminated lettuce and fuck people over
phototaxis and phototropism
-phototaxis - moving towards/away from light

-phototropism - orientation of an organism in response to light
perception and our experience of the world
-ontology - to exist or to be, the study of, addressing the question of what's actually out there, why there is anything at all, and what is the nature of existence in some kind of deep way

-Epistemology - from the Greek word for knowledge, how do we learn about the way the world is
visual perception pathway
vision / eye / photoreceptor cells / photons of visible light / see images
gustatory perception pathway
taste (gustation) / tongue / taste receptors in tongue
naive realism
common sense theory of perception - we see the world as it is

but our abilities of perception kind of suck.
vestibular, proprioception
-vestibular - the experience of balance, not one of the top senses because it's unconscious

-proprioception - the sensors used for vestibular
electromagnetic spectrum, visible light
-the range of wavelengths and frequencies that have been discovered by humans
-visible light 400-700nm wavelength
UV sensitivity, honeyguides
-honeyguides are patterns on the flowers that are visible only in the UV region of the spectrum. bees can see it. cause they rock.
infrared sensitivity in pit vipers
they have pits on their faces to detect radiation, and thus discern where their prey is
polarized light and navigation
-light gets polarized when it bounces off air molecules-- it is forced to vibrate in a single plane
-honeybees, ants, and beetles can perceive polarized light and use it for navigation
auditory ranges of sensitivity
-humans can hear from 20-20kHz
-bats can hear up to 200kHz
Karl Von Frisch
Worked with honeybees and discovered that they had color vision by doing that table experiment
electric field detection - passive and active electroreception
-shark passively perceiving a flounder's electric fields emitted by body of flounder perceived by shark


-the platypus uses active electroreception in their bill. so they can find the bioelectric field of their invertebrate prey.

-active - purposely produce their own electric fields in order to monitor surrounding activity
magnetic field detection and navigation
-use the earth's geomagnetic field for navigation, like the homing pigeon
-birds, fish, turtles and honeybees
Pigeon homing experiment
-attaching magnets to pigeons fucks them up
other perceptual worlds
worlds that can only be viewed with UV or IR vision, perception is totally different of the same world
rods and cones, rhodopsin and cone-opsins
-rods are used for black and white vision, are more sensitive to dim light
--have rhodopsin

-cones are more responsible for bright light and fine detail, they are found mainly at the fovea
--they have cone-opsins
vision defects: color blindness, retinal achromatopsia
-color blindness is when someone lacks a type of cone

-retinal achromatopsia is when people have no color perception and functional cone cells.
--very sensitive to light
--genetic disorder
distribution of photoreceptor cells in the retina
-cones at fovea, rods on the sides of the fovea
-rods are in the periphery more
blind spot and retina
blind spot is where optic nerve attaches to eye at the retina
retinal: light-absorbing part of the photoreceptor protein
-retinal molecule is covalently attached to the interior of the opsin protein
-different electron cloud structures allow different colors to be seen
-comes from vitamin A (retinol)
GPCR amplification of signal from activation of single photoreceptor
-rhodopsin and cone-opsin are GPCRs
-once they bind, they activate enzymes, lowering the concentration of cGMP, and make channels open and close differently, which is where the amplification happens
anatomy of retina: cell types and cell layers
Three main types of cells
-ganglion cells
-bipolar cells with two long processes coming out of them
-photoreceptor cells
receptive fields: "on-center" and "off-center"
region in space from which stimuli in that region of space will stimulate a response in some set of neurons.

-increased or decreased cell firing in the middle of cells
edge detection
when you have overlapping receptive fields, this allows for good edge detection
retina to LGN to occipital lobe and other visual cortical areas
this is the pathway of seeing

LGN is lateral geniculate nucleus, a part of the thalamus
visual maps and the topography of visual space
different parts of the brain activate and correspond to the visual world
function of different visual areas
-v1 is the visual field
-v4 is color response and processing
lesion studies
-lesions in v1 make you blind in a defined region of space
-often lesions from strokes or tumors cause small areas of blindness, called scotomas
-a lesion in v4 causes a loss of color vision; cortical achromatopsia
inferior temporal lobe and vision
-responds to complex geshtalts, especially with faces
-located in the temporal lobe
face perception (Prosopagnosia)
monkeys couldn't recognize random lines, but neurons fired when they saw faces
deficit of recognition of faces, usually caused by a lesion in the IT lobe, especially the right hemisphere
mixing/joining perceptual information across different sensory channels.

purple is delicious
Vladimir Nabokov
Wrote Lolita, with a person who has synesthesia
components of flavor
-salt - NaCl
-sour - H+
-bitter - different GPCRs
-sweet - 1 GPCR sweet receptor
-umami - delicious
ionotropic channels as taste-receptor proteins
NaCl activates salt receptor taste buds
GPCRs as taste-receptor proteins
-bitter - 30 bitter GPCRs
-sweet tastes - 1 sweet GPCR
synthetic sweeteners
aspartame 180x sweeter than sucrose