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86 Cards in this Set

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Muscular, Elastic vessels That carry blood away from the heart.
Small branches of arteries
Tiny,thin walled vessels: Site of exchange between blood and tissues
Small Branches which merge to form Veins
Thin wall vessel that carry's blood to the heart
Arteries Carry oxygenated blood away to the heart, veins carry deoxygenated blood to the heart
Systemic Circuit
Arteries Carry deoxygenated away from the heart, veins carry oxygenated blood to the heart
Pulmunary Circuit
Three artery layers
Tunica externa(nerve endings), Tunica media(thickest), Tunica Interna(simple squamous epithelium)
Allow arteries to stretch, then recoil to original size.
Elastic Fiber
Allows Changes in vessel diameter
Smooth Muscle
Decreased Diameter in vessel
Increased diameter in vessel
Largest Diameter artery closest to the heart. Arota, Pulmunary trunk. Have a higher elastic fiber and less smooth muscle.
Elastic Arteries
Strech to accommodate surge of blood from the heart; store mechanical energy to recoil and move blood forward. Maintains the pressure.
Elastic artery also called pressure reservoirs or conducting arteries.
Conduct blood from heart to arterial branches.
Conducting Arteries
Medium size artery, also Distrubuting arteries-distribute blood to diffrent body regions. Brachial/Femoral arteries.
Muscular Artery
Smallest diameter artery branches in tissue delivers blood to capillaries. Also called resistance vessels.
Microscopic vessels,No tunica media or tunica externa
Site of diffusion of material between blood and tissue. Found in most tissue numbers depend on medibolic rate of tissue.
Exchange vessels
10-100 capillaries supplying a tissue region Metarteriol/thoroughfare channel. Direct path from a arteriole to a venule.
Capillary Bed
Regulate blood flow into capillaries or thoroughfare channel, alternatley open or close based on the needs of the tissue.
Precapillarie Sphincters
Types of Capillaries
Continous Capillary
Fenestrated Capillary
Least permeable capillary found in most tissue has intercellular gaps to allow passage of water and small solutes and lipid soluble materials. No RBC OR PROTIENS
Continous Capillaries
More permeable intercellular gaps+ Frenestraions: Pores in the epithelial cells FOUND AT SITES OF- filtration, asorbtion and secretion.
Fenestrated Capillaries
Large, Most Permeable large fenistrations and intercellular gaps FOUND AT SITES FOR PROTEIN AND CELLULAR EXCHANGE (RED BONE MARROW) how RBC&WBC get into blood stream
Carry blood from capillaries to veins. Very thin near capillaries. Site of some exchange, muscle/connective tissue in walls increase as they get further from the capillaries.
Three layers of Veins
Tunica Externa(Thickest layer)
Tunica Media(thin little muscle)
Tunica Interna
One Way cusps that prevent backflow of blood pressure in veins is to low to keep blood flowing against gravity.
Dilated veins due to leaky valves.
Varicose Veins
Alternate pathway for blood flow in a region if one vessel becomes blocked.
Collateral Circulation
Alternate pathway for blood in a region if one vessel becomes blocked
Collateral Circulation
Connections between arteries/arteriols supplying adjacent regions(Also occur in veins and venules)
Forces involved in circulating blood.
Volume of passing through a tissue/minute
Blood Flow
Artery that dosn't anastomose
End Artery
Death of tissue due to blockage of an end artery myocardial infarction = heart attack (heart muscle dies)
Total blood flow =
Cardiac Output(CO)
Factors affecting blood flow
Pressure difference
Vascular resistance
Greater difference= greater flow
Pressure Difference
Greater resistance = less flow
Vascular resistance
Opposition to flow due to friction between blood and vessel wall
Vascular Resistance (R)
Factors of Vascular resistance
(3 Factors)
1) Diameter of vessel lumen
2) Blood viscosity(thicker blood = increased resistance)
3) Blood vessel length
Hydrostatic pressure of blood on the walls of an artery; pressure delivering blood to tissue capillaries
Blood Pressure
Used to measure systemic blood pressure brachial artery
Highest arterial pressure (120mmHg)produced by left ventricular systole
Systolic pressure
Lowest arterial pressure (80mmHg)during ventricular diastole; maintained by elastic rebound in arteries and arterioles
Diastolic pressure
Waves of pressure through arteries and arterioles pulse pressure, disappears in capillaries
Average pressure in arteries, Decreases further from the heart
Mean Arterial Pressure(MAP)
Pressure in Veins
Venous pressure
Pressure in capillaries
Capillary Pressure
Rate is determined by blood pressure and total cross-sectional area of vessels
Blood Flow Rate (Velocity)
Low pressure difference is barely enough to overcome gravity
Venous Return
Fainting due to insufficient blood to brain
Aids to Venous Return
3 Factors
1) valves:one-way 2)Skeletal muscle pump: contraction of limb muscles compresses vein; “milks” blood through vein with help of valves.
3)Respiratory pump:Diphram movement during inhalation
The veins and venules serve as __________.
Blood reservoirs
Returns more blood to the heart when needed eg. hemorrhage,exercise Contricting aids in more blood
This occurs at rest in vessels
Purpose of cardiovascular system
Solutes exchanged from high concentration to low concentration
Diffusion (Exsamples)
Diffusion from blood into cells – oxygen, nutrients, hormones.
Diffusion from cells into blood – carbon dioxide, wastes, hormones.
Diffusion occurs through intracellular gaps, fenestrations, ion channels, through cell membranes (lipid-soluble materials) plasma proteins and blood cells only diffuse through sinusoids
Pressure driven movement of fluid across a porous membrane(water and solutes small enough to fit through pores)
Bulk Flow
Bulk flow from blood to interstitial fluid
Bulk flow from interstitial fluid to blood
Pressures That Promote Filtration
Capillary hydrostatic pressure (CHP)
Pressures That Promote Reabsorption.
Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP)
Indicates net fluid movement
Net Filtration Pressure (NFP)
Conditoin where tissue swells due to filtration exceeding reabsorption
Amount of blood being supplied to tissues; must supply needs of tissues for oxygen and nutrients, and removal of wastes
Tissue perfusion
Blood pressure depends on:
Cardiac output
Vascular Resistance
Based on metabolic needs of tissues; release of local factors that cause dilation or constriction of arterioles and precapillary sphincters
Autoregulation of Capillary beds
Opening of precapilary sphinctors
Closing of precapilary sphinctors
Fast "short lived" response of cardiac center. Stimulation of baroreceptor reflex or chemoreceptors.
Neural Regulation of the cardiovascular system
Slower "longer lived" response of the cariac center.
Hormonal Regulation of the cardiovascular system
Stretch receptors in aortic sinus and carotid sinus send impulses to CV center
Baroreceptor reflexes
Detect levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions chemoreceptors in carotid bodies, aortic body
send impulses to CV center
Chemoreceptor reflexes
RAA system, ADH, erythropoietin and adrenal medulla all do what to blood pressure.
Atrial Natriuretic peptide(ANP) – stimulated by atrial stretching, does what to blood pressure.
Happens when cardiovascular system fails to deliver adequate oxygen and nutrients to meet cellular needs
Low blood volume from hemorrhage,dehydration or diabetes, may cause this type of shock
Hypovolemic shock
Poor heart function or a heart attack, may cause this type of shock.
Cardiogenic shock
Decreased vascular resistance may cause this type of shock
Vascular shock
Allergy vasodilators may cause this type of shock
Anaphylactic Shock
Cardiovascular center disfunction or head trauma may cause this type of shock
Neurogenic shock
Blockage of blood flow, like a pulmonary thromboembolism, may cause this type of shock
Obstructive shock
Shock caused by bacterial toxins is called
Septic shock