Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/40

Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pressure-sensitive mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in arterial pressure and stretch. Located in aortic arch, carotid sinus, and most large arteries of neck and thorax.
baroreceptors
Where are the baroreceptors that sense blood pressure located?
In the aortic arch, carotid sinus, and most large arteries.
What happens to baroreceptors when blood pressure is high?
It ↑ impulses to the brain.
What happens to both parasympathetic activity and sympathetic activity when blood pressure is high?
↑ PNS and ↓ SNS
What is the effect of increased parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic activity on both heart rate and blood pressure?
↑ reduction of heart rate and ↓ BP.
What is the name of the parasympathetic nerve that decreases heart rate?
vagus nerve
How does a decrease in heart rate decrease blood pressure?
HR decrease BP by decreasing cardiac output.
Sympathetic nerve fiber that stimulates contraction of the smooth muscle cells of a blood vessel, thus decreasing the diameter of the vessel (vasoconstriction).
vasomotor fiber
What is the effect of high blood pressure on arteries?
High BP leads to vasoconstriction.
How does vasodilation decrease blood pressure?
↓ activity of vasomotor fibers leads to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle which leads to ↑ arterial diameter.
What happens to baroreceptors when the blood pressure is low? What effect does that have on the brain?
• Falling blood pressure
• Baroreceptors inhibited
• Decreased impulses to the brain
• Decreased parasympathetic activity, increased sympathetic activity
What are the three effects of an increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic activity?
1. Heart: increased heart rate and increased contractility
2. Vessels: increased vasoconstriction
3. Adrenal gland: release of epinephrine and norepinephrine which enhance heart rate, contractility, and vasoconstriction
How does an increase in heart rate increase blood pressure?
By decreasing PNS and increasing Cardiac output. This will increase HR and BP.
What is the effect of low blood pressure on arteries?
Increases arterial diameter and increases vasodilation.
How does vasoconstriction increase blood pressure?
It makes arteries smaller in diameter which the make the blood travel faster.
What is the effect of sympathetic activity on the adrenal gland?
Increased sympathetic impulses to adrenal glands releasing NE and E to bloodstream.
Why are the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal gland slower-acting and more prolonged than nervous system control?
Because they are carried in the blood, and their effects are more prolonged.
When there is a loss of blood through hemorrhage, accident, or donating a pint of blood, what two long-term regulatory processes will restore blood volume and therefore blood pressure back to normal?
The conservation of body fluids via renal mechanisms & stimulate intake of water to normalize blood volume and blood pressure.
What happens to blood volume and blood pressure when there is blood loss?
Blood pressure and blood volume decrease
If blood pressure falls too low, what do the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney release into the bloodstream?
renin
Plasma globulin made by the liver that is converted to angiotensin I by renin. Part of renin-angiotensin mechanism, which increases blood pressure.
angiotensinogen
How is angiotensinogen activated?
As renin travels through the bloodstream, it binds to an inactive plasma protein, angiotensinogen, activating it into angiotensin I.
How is angiotensin I converted into Angiotensin II?
As angiotensin I passes through the lung capillaries, an enzyme in the lungs converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
Place the following steps in the release of aldosterone in order:
a. An enzyme in the lungs converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
b. Angiotensinogen is activated into angiotensin I.
c. Angiotensin II stimulates the cells of the adrenal cortex to release the hormone aldosterone.
d. As renin travels through the bloodstream, it binds to an inactive plasma protein, angiotensinogen.
e. Angiotensin II continues through the bloodstream until it reaches the adrenal gland.
f. Angiotensin I passes through the lung capillaries.
d
b
f
a
e
c
What happens when Angiotensin II reaches the adrenal gland?
stimulates the release of aldosterone
What are two effects of angiotensin II?
1. it's a vasocontrictor
2. raises BP
What is the target organ for aldosterone?
kidneys
What is the effect of aldosterone?
promotes increased reabsorption of Na+ from the kidney tubules.
What is "filtrate" and where is it located within the kidneys? What is its relationship to the blood capillaries.
A filtrate is a fluid and solutes that are forced out of the blood into the glomerular capsule of the kidney. They are located on the peritubular capillaries. The filtrate is then processed by the renal tubules to form urine.
What is the process of reabsorption within the kidneys?
• Each distal convoluted tubule winds through the kidney and eventually empties its contents into a urine-collecting duct.
• The peritubular capillaries absorb solutes and water from the tubule cells as these substances are reclaimed from the filtrate.
What happens when aldosterone binds to the cells of the distal convoluted tubule?
In the convoluted tubule, there are Na+ molecules, and they are reabsorbed into the bloodstream.
How does aldosterone increase the blood volume and blood pressure?
When Na+ is reabsorbed into the bloodstream, H20 follows. The reabsorbed H20 increases BV and BP.
What effect does dehydration due to sweating, diarrhea, or excessive urine flow have on osmolarity of the blood, blood volume, and blood pressure?
Increased osmolarity of blood
Decreased BV and BP
An increased osmolarity of the blood causes the release of what hormone?
ADH
What is the effect of ADH?
Stimulate kidneys to reabsorb more H20, reducing urine volume.
How does ADH increase water reabsorption in the kidney?
It stimulates an Increase in # of H20 channels in the distal convoluted tubules & collecting tubules. The tubules move H20 back to capillaries. Decreased osmolarity & increased BV and BP.
What is the short-term effect of increased osmolarity of the blood on blood pressure?
The excitation of thirst centers in hypothalamus stimulate person to drink more H20 & rehydrate blood and extracellular fluid, restoring blood volume and therefore blood pressure.
When blood volume and blood pressure are increased, do the following increase or decrease?
a. Renin release from the kidney ________.
b. Angiotensinogen into Angiotensin I _______.
c. Angiotensin I into Angiotensin II _______.
d. Aldosterone release from the adrenal gland _______.
e. Sodium reabsorption from the filtrate into the blood _______.
f. Water reabsorption _______.
g. Blood volume and blood pressure _______.
all decrease
When blood volume and blood pressure are decreased, do the following increase or decrease?
a. Renin release from the kidney ________.
b. Angiotensinogen into Angiotensin I _______.
c. Angiotensin I into Angiotensin II _______.
d. Aldosterone release from the adrenal gland _______.
e. Sodium reabsorption from the filtrate into the blood _______.
f. Water reabsorption _______.
g. As a result blood volume and blood pressure _______.
all increase
When there is an increase in dehydration, are the following increased or decreased?
a. Body water _______.
b. Blood volume and blood pressure _______.
c. Blood osmolarity _______.
d. ADH release from the pituitary _______.
e. Water permeability of the kidney tubules _______.
f. Urine output and blood osmolarity _______.
g. As a result, blood volume and blood pressure _______.
a. decrease
b. decrease
c. increase
d. increase
e. increase
f. decrease
g. decrease