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112 Cards in this Set

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The regulation of the PH of the blood is carried out by the
Hemoglobin
What is the hematocrit average of men and women
42% for women
45% for men
Major functions of blood
1- Transport.
2- Communication.
3- Organism preservation.
What does blood transport?
1- Transports Oxygen to the tissues.
2- Transports nutrients.
3- Transports heat.
Communication between various organs & tissues is carried out by
Hormones circulating in the blood
Protective functions of the blood can be summarized as
1- Immunity.
2- Hemostasis.
In early Embryonic life, Hemopoiesis is carried out by
The liver and the spleen
When does the medullary cavities of the bones start to supersede the function of the liver and spleen
the fifth month
After birth hemopoiesis is restricted to
marrow of both flat and long bones
What happens to hemopoiesis after adulthood?
The bone marrow turns into yellow marrow in the shafts of the bones, Hemopoiesis takes place in the bone marrow of the heads of the femora and humeri & to some flat bones(Sternum, Ribs, & Vertebrae).
Hemocytoblasts
Pluripotent SCs
Proerythroblasts
Erythrocytes
Myeloblasts
Granulocytes
Monoblasts
Monocytes
Megakaryocytes
Thrombocytes
Sinusoids of the BM are supported externally by
adventitial
Adventitial=
Arising after birth
The spaces between the sinusoids contain the
hemopoietic cells
The main constituents of plasma are
Water 90%
Proteins 8%
NaCl 0.9%
Plasma - Clotting Factors =
Serum
The importance of the plasma salts is
They act as a protein solvent, allowing the proteins to be carried in the plasma
What's the plasma protein concentration?
6.2-8.2 g/dl
What are the plasma globulins divided into?
Alpha 1
Alpha 2
Beta
Gamma
Fibrinogen
What's the normal concentration of Albumin?
4-5.6 g/dl
Globulins' Concentration is:
1.3-3 g/dl
Fibrinogen's concentration is
0.1-0.5 g/dl
When is the capillary permeability increased?
Anoxia
Urticaria
Inflammationw
Where are the plasma proteins manufactures?
The hepatocytes of the liver
Immunoglobulins are manufactured by
The lymphoid cells
When there's a liver disease, what happens to the concentration of the immunoglobulins in the blood?
It rises as a result of plasma cell hyperplasia
What are the functions of tha plasma proteins?
1- Increase the viscosity of the blood.
2- Osmotic pressure = maintenance of the water balance bet. plasma & tissues.
3- 15% of the buffering capacity of the blood.
4- Transport substances.
Function of the albumin?
Maintenance of the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood.(regulating fluid flow between blood & tissues)
Alpha & beta globulins are concerned with
blood coagulation
Are hemostatic mechanisms ablt to stop the bleeding of large arteries
Nope, They can only stop the bleeding of arterioles, venules, capillaries(small blood vessels)
Platelets adhere to the
collagen underlying the endothelium when it's exposed due to an injury.
The ADP released by the platelets cause
more platelets to aggregate
The adherence of the platelets to the damaged vessel walls is facilitated by
Von Willebrand Factor
Adherence of the platelets to collagen causes .... to be converted into .... which....
Arachidonic acid into Thromboxane A2 which stimulates platelet aggregation and the secretion of platelet granules.
How does the platelet plug decrease in size?
The platelets contain some contraction factors which cause them to contract.
Why don't platelets bind to normal endothelium surrounding the site of injury?
Because normal endothelium contains an enzyme which converts arachidonic acid into prostacyclin which inhibits platelet aggregation.
What are the factors secreted by the platelets which cause Vasoconstriction?
Serotonin (5-HT)
Adrenaline
Vasoconstriction is mainly initiated by
Nervous Reflexes
Local Myogenic Spasms
Chemical linkages which form between adjacent strands are catalyzed by
Factor XIII
A factor which converts fibrinogen into fibrin
\thrombin
Factor XIII is activated by
Thrombin
What's the role of thrombin in platelet plug formation
It enhances platelet aggregation
What's the color of the blood clot if there are no trapped RBCs or WBCs?
Gray
The formation of prothrombin in the liver depends on
Vitamin K
What's the cascade in the Intrinsic pathway?
Factor XII -> Factor XI -> Factor IX - > Factor X -> Converts prothrombin to thrombin -> Loose Fibron + Factor XIII + PF3(more thrombin + factor V) + PF3(More Factor X + factor VIII)
Factor 12 Is activated when
It meets the exposed collagen fibers
The phospholipid secreted by platelets whichenhances platelet aggregation is
PF3
PF3 is important in the clotting cascade because it
Catalyzes the activation of factor X & The conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
The extrinsic mechanism clots the blood
which escaped to the tissues
Proteolytic enzyme with cleavage abilities
Tissue factor
Extrinsic Pathway
Tissue Factor + Factor VII + Calcium + Phospholipids = Factor X -> the rest from the intrinsic pathway
Which is faster, the intrinsic or the extrinsic pathway?
The extrinsic pathway is faster than the intrinsic one.
What factor is exclusive to the extrinsic pathway?
Factor VII
Factor I
Fibrinogen
Factor II
Prothrombin
Factor III
Tissue Factor or Thromboplastin
Factor IV
Calcium
Factor V
Pro-Accelerin
Factor VII
Proconvertin
Factor VIII
Anti-hemophilic globulin
Factor IX
Christmas Factor
Factor X
Stuart-Prower Factor
Factor XI
Plasma Thromboplastin antecedent
Factor XII
Hageman Factor
Factor XIII
Fibrin Stabilizing Factor
What's the name of Factor I?
Fibrinogen
What's the name of Factor II?
Prothrombin
What's the name of factor III?
Tissue factor or thromboplastin
What's the name of factor IV?
Calcium
What's the name of factor V?
Pro-accelerin
What's the name of factor VII?
pro-convertin
What's the name of factor VIII?
Anti-hemophilic globulin
What's the name of factor IX?
Christmas Factor
What's the name of factor X?
Stuart-prower factor
What's the name of factor XI?
Plasma thromboplastin antecedent
What's the name of factor XII?
Hageman factor
What's the name of factor XIII?
Fibrin Stabilizing Factor
In vitro the .... pathway of blood coagulation takes action
intrinsic
The main role of the extrinsic pathway is to
produce small amounts of thrombin rapidly in order to accelerate the intrinsic pathway
Prostacyclin is produced by .... and its function is
Endothelial cells
to inhibit platelet aggregation and phospholipid release
Protein C and Anti thrombin III
inhibit clotting cascade directly
Thrombin has a role in anticlotting system which is
It activates protein C
Antithrombin III
Deactivates thrombin, it needs Heparin.
Fibrinolytic depends on the conversion of
Plasminogen to plasmin
Plasmin digests
fibrinogen
factor V
factor VIII
The products of the degradation of fibrin by plasmin are called
Fibrin Split Products;
Fibrin degradation products
Plasmin is inactivated by
Alpha globulins
Activated factor XII activates
Intrinsic pathway
Fibrinolytic system
Plasminogen to plasmin conversion
Kinin system(inflammation)
Aspirin inhibits
Cyclo-oxygenase cycle in the formation of thromboxane, therefore platelets which are formed won't be able to release thromboxane throughout their life span. This is taken is small doses(75, 81 mg) and is called baby aspirin
Tinnitus
Perception of a sound that doesn't exist
Coumarin is
a drug that interferes with the action of vitamin K in hepatocytes
Heparin
a cofactor of antithrombin III, can be administered as a drug
Streptokinase
A plasminogen activator, it dissolves the formed clot
What's the alternative for streptokinase?
Tissue plasminogen activator
abnormal clot is aka
thrombus
What's the danger of staphylococcus aureus?
Most strains of it produce toxins which rapidly clots human blood.
Hemorrhagic tendency may be due to
1- A defect or damage in the blood vessels.
2- A decreased number of platelets.
3- A defect in the clotting mechanism.
Hemorrhage < 2 mm in diameter is called
petechiae
Diffuse flat hemorrhages > 2 mm
ecchymosis
if there's a definite swelling the legion is called
hematoma
any condition in which there's bleeding into the skin
purpuraw
Defects in the vessel wall may be a result of
1- Scurvy.
2- Senile purpura.
3- Chemical agents.
4- Infection.
Hemorrhagic diseases due to platelet abnormalities may be a result of
1- Thrombocytopenia.
2- thrombocytopathia.
There's a tendency for hemorrhage associated with trauma if platelet number falls below
50,000
There's a great risk for fatal hemorrhage when the platelet count falls below
5000
In uremia, what inhibits platelet aggregation?
a dialyzable factor
The defects in the clotting system may be:
1- Hemophilia.
2- Christmas disease.
3- Hypothrombinemia.
4- Fibrinogen penia.
In hemophilia, which is a hereditary disorder, which clotting factor is missing?
Factor VIII