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135 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Justify blood as a connective tissue.
--
Formed Elements of blood
Consists of cells (white blood cells, red blood cells)
and cell fragments (platelets).
Liquid Intercellular Material (plasma)
serum +
clotting proteins.
If coagulation is prevented by a chemical additive (e.g.: citrate, heparin)
and the blood is centrifuged, a layering will be observed. What will we see
Upper 54% Plasma (serum + clotting elements)
Middle 1% WBC’s + Platelets (“Buffy Coat”)
Lower 45% RBC’s
Hematocrit is defined as the volume of RBC’s
The fluids in the interstitial compartment are derived by
filtration from
the blood compartment due to the HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE OF
BLOOD.
Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBC’s)
How many? Are they nucleated when mature
are anucleated cells when mature and
number approximately 5 million/mm3.
The RBC’s measure approximately ____ in diameter.
7.5 µm
Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBC’s)contain ______ which contains ______
hemoglobin, Fe++
Each heme group contains iron Fe++ and is capable of combining with O2 to form
oxyhemoglobin
Each heme group contains iron Fe++ and is capable of combining with CO2 to form
carbaminohemoglobin
Each heme group contains iron Fe++ and is capable of combining with CO to form
carboxyhemoglobin
Erythrocytes have the shape of biconcave disks which allows a greater surface area for what gas exchange
O2 <-> CO2.
Energy is expended to maintain erythrocyes shape and requires _____ made through ________
ATP

anaeobic glycolysis (also pentose phosphate
pathway).
Cells placed in a hypertonic solution lose water and undergo a structural change called _________.
crenation
When cells are placed in a ___________ solution, hemolysis occurs, a process whereby hemoglobin dissolves out of the cells leaving an
“empty” shell or “ghost”.
hypotonic
Erythrocytes are produced in the ___________ as nucleated cells. They loose their nuclei before leaving the marrow.
bone marrow
They leave the bone marrow and circulate for about _______ days. After this
period, they undergo ________
90-120/destruction
Destruction of RBCs occurs mainly in the ______ by macrophages although
phagocytic cells in the bone marrow participate in this process.
spleen
Erythrocytes are engulfed and digested by lysosomal action. In the process,
hemoglobin is broken down into ____ and ____.
heme / globin
Heme is broken down into ________ and ________
ferritin (iron-containing component)

bilirubin
Globin is dissociated into what?
its amino acid compoments which join the amino acid pool.
Ferritin is sent where?
to the marrow for reutilization
Where does biliruben go?
Bilirubin is picked up by the liver and excreted with the bile.
Leukocytes or white blood cells (WBC’s). How many
approximately 4-10 thousand/mm3.
Leukocytes or white blood cells (WBC’s) Are they nucleated when mature?
are nucleated cells when mature
In general, WBCs are involved in what?
the cellular and humoral defense of the organism
against foreign material.
The main functions of the WBCs is performed Where?
in the connective tissue
The cells
leave the vascular spaces by a process of _________.
diapedesis
Granulocytes are so-called because
they contain “specific” granules peculiar to
that cell type.
What are the three types of granulocytes:
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, & Basophils.
Azurophilic (primary, non-specific) granules

Why primary. Why non-speceific?
rich in acid phosphatase
and peroxidase.

when stained with Wright’s stain, they have an azure hue

also called primary because in the development of the cell,
they are the first type of granule to appear.

The “non-specific”
term is applied since these granules are found in all three cell types and are not “specific” to one type of cell.
Neutrophils respond to ________ which results in their migration to the sites containing the microbes.
chemotactic agents
Once Neutrophils phagocytose the bacteria, they destroy them through the actions of the _______ in the ________.
hydrolytic ezymes / azurophilic granules
_________ and ________also serve to attract other neutrophils to the area.
hydrolytic ezymes / azurophilic granules
Neutrophils synthesize ________ which aid the initiation of the inflammatory process.
leukotrienes
Neutrophils die in the process of killing the bacteria. The accumulation of tissue fluid, dead neutrophils and bacteria is referred to as ____.
pus
__________ are developed after the primary granules and contain substances
peculiar to a specific cell type (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils).
Specific (secondary) granules
The granulocytes are named according to the
staining characteristics of their ____________.
secondary granules
Neutrophils comprise approximately ______ of the circulating leukocytes.
60-70%
Neutrophils main function is to destroy ________.
invading microbes
A mature neutrophil measures about _______ in diameter
12-15µm
The nucleus
contains ______ lobes, each interconnected by fine strands of chromatin.
2-5
The ________ granules of the neutrophils are typical lysosomes containing
acid hydrolases, myeloperoxidase, cathepsin G, collagenase,
and elastase.
azurophilic
The ________ granules contain various enzymes and other agents that aid
the neutrophils in performing its antimicrobial functions. These include
such agents as alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme, and collagenase
specific
Neutrophils
derive their name from the fact that their secondary granules appear
NOT to stain in Wright’s stain. Close observation, however, demonstrates
_____________.
a very light lavender hue
The azurophilic granules of the basophils are ___________
typical lysosomes containing acid hydrolases.
The _________ of basophils contain histamine, leukotrienes, (SRS), heparin, eosinophil chemotacticfactor, and neutrophil chemotactic factor. These cells are functionally related to but not identical with mast cells.
specific granules
The _________ and __________ released by basophils play a role in the dilation of small blood vessels and in the increase in permeability of capillaries.
histamine / leukotrienes (SRS)
As is the case with mast cells, the basophils bind _____(an antibody secreted by plasma cells)onto its surface following an initial exposure to an allergen. Upon subsequent exposure, the
allergen binds to the ____ and ruptures the cell membrane bringing about a release of the vasoactive
substances.
IgE
Eosinophils comprise approximately ______ of the circulating
leukocytes.
1-3%
main fx of eosinophils
destroy parasites (e.g.
worms) and hydrolyze antigen-antibody complexes.
A mature eosinophil measures about ______ in diameter
12-15µm
The nucleus of an contains ___ lobes, each interconnected by fine strands of chromatin.
2
The azurophilic granules of the eosinophils are ________ containing ____________
similar to neutrophils. These enzymes are involved in hydrolyzing phagocytosed antigen-antibody
complexes.
typical lysosomes / acid hydrolases
The specific granules of eosinophils are refractile under the light microscope and stain ______ in Wright’s stain.
pink
These granules are uniform in size. They contain aryl sulfatase (to neutralize SRS), histaminase
(to neutralize histamine), major basic protein and eosinophil cationic protein; the latter
two are secreted onto the surface of ___________ thereby killing them.
parasitic worms
Basophils comprise approximately _____ of the circulating leukocytes.
0.5-1%
A mature basophil measures about _____ in diameter.
12-15µm
The nucleus of the basophil is usually _______ but may be obscured by the dark specific granules.
lobulated
Some of the circulating lymphocytes are slightly larger at 10-12 µm and are called __________.
medium
lymphocytes
Agranulocytes include _______ and ________.
lymphocytes / monocytes
Agranulocytes do not have “specific” granules, however, they do contain variable numbers of __________.
azurophilic granules (lysosomes)
About ____ of the circulating leukocytes consist of lymphocytes.
30%
Most of the lymphocytes measure about _____ or slightly larger than erythrocytes. These cells are classified as small lymphocytes.
The ________ almost fills the entire cell.
8-10 µm
/nucleus
About _____ of the circulating leukocytes consist of monocytes.
3-8%
MONOCYTES are quite large cells, measuring approximately ______ .
20-30µm
The large nucleus of the MONOCYTE is frequently _______ and has chromatin that is not
as dense as the other leukocytes.
indented
After entering the connective tissue spaces, monocytes transform into _______ and become active phagocytes.
macrophages
As would be expected, The cytoplasm of contains lots monocytes of ___________.
lysosomes (azurophilic granules).
FUNCTIONS of monocytes
1. Phagocytosis of debris, antigenic material, and foreign matter such as bacteria.
2. Macrophages fuse with other macrophages to form foreign body giant cells
to allow phagocytosis of large material.
3. They secrete cytokines that activate the inflammatory process.
Platelets are cell fragments (2-4 µm) that bud off of very large
cells (ca. 150µm), called __________ that are located in the ________.
megakaryocytes

bone marrow
They number about 250, 000-400,000/mm3 and have a life
span of about ____ days.
14
Numerous granules are present in the cytoplasm of platelets and contain a variety of substances such as: give 3
platelet growth-factor
platelet thromboplastin
thrombospondin
coagulation factors
ADP
ATP
seratonin
histamine
hydrolytic enzymes
Platelet functions are related to _________ .
hemostasis
Following damage to a blood vessel, the platelets become activated upon contacting the
_____________ and release the contents of their granules. As a result, the platelets adhere to the damage site.
subendothelial collagen
_________ causes the platelets to become
“sticky” and adhere to each other. This process results in a “plug” being formed thereby reducing blood loss.
thrombospondin
__________ released from platelets, causes vasoconstriction which further helps to reduce blood loss
Seratonin
_____ _______ is a specialized, highly cellular connective tissue located in the cavitations of the bones.
Bone marrow
Bone marror originates in the ______ month of intrauterine life within the clavicles (1st bones
to ossify) and expands with maturation of the remaining bones.
second
In the ______ month it is found in within the scapulae, innominate bones, occipital bones, ribs, & vertebrae.
third
When it first appears, the marrow is concerned primarily with the _________ of bones. It maintains this _________ function throughout life.
growth and
remodeling

osteogenic
Functions of Bone Marrow
1. Hematopoiesis

2. Hematoclasia

3. Immunological

4. Osseous
Hematopoiesis fx in bone marrow
Marrow functions in the production of all erythrocytes, granulocytes, platelets,
monocytes, and a small portion of lymphocytes.
Hematoclasia fx in bone marrow
Specialized cells resident in the marrow participate in the destruction of imperfect,
aged, and damaged cells.
Immunological fx in bone marrow
Supplies stem lymphocytes to their respective lymphoid organs. Monocytes
originate from the marrow and later differentiate into macrophages, a cell type
that is important in the initial processesing of antigens and the phagocytosis
and destruction of foreign material.
Osseous fx in bone marrow
Marrow contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts that function in the continual
remodeling of bone.
Marrow is classified as _____ or ______.
red / yellow
_______ is red in color and indicates active hematopoiesis.
Red marrow
In adults, red marrow
is found in the ____ bones of the body.
flat
__________ is so-called due to large populations of fat cells. There is very
little hematopoiesis in this type of marrow.
Yellow marrow
In neonates, the marrow in all the bones is ____.
red
Fat appears in the shafts of long bones about ____ years of age.
5-7
By the 18th year, almost all the marrow in the long bones is _____.
yellow
Marrow is subdivided into what two main “compartments”:
1. Vascular compartment
2. Hemopoietic compartment
Nutrient arteries enter bone via nutrient foramina and branch into smaller
vessels. These smaller vessels empty into an extensive network of
sinusoids that is found throughout the marrow cavity. Blood from the
sinusoids drain into veins that leave through the nutrient foramina.
Sinusoids are the predominate vascular element in the marrow and measure
between 50-75µm in diameter. They are comprised of a single layer of
endothelial cells with a thin basement membrane and are surrounded by
reticular fibers and phagocytic cells.
The walls of the sinusoids are frequently and
regularly crossed by cells in transit.
What compartment does this describe?
Vascular compartment
Megakaryocytes are located predominately against the outer walls of the _______
to provide ready access of platelets to the circulation.
sinusoids
Located between the sinusoids and contains:
1) the cells of the hemopoietic lineage.
2) connective tissue cells such as mast cells, macrophages, plasma cells,
and reticular cells.
What compartment is this?
Hemopoetic
Erythrocytes in early development are located ____ the sinusoids and in late
development are located ___________ sinusoids.
near / against the walls of the
Granulocytes in early development are located _________ sinusoids and
in late development are located ___________ sinusoids.
the furthest from the / against the walls of the
The earliest stages of hemopoiesis, the __________, occurs in the yolk sac at about 2 weeks after fertilization.
mesoblastic phase
During the mesoblastic phase, Mesenchymal cells form ________ ; the outer cells develop into vessel walls and the inner cells develop into nucleated erythrocytes.
blood islands
The _________ begins about the sixth week of gestation. Initially, only
erythrocytes are produced. At about 8 weeks, leukocytes are produced.
hepatic phase
The ___________ during the second trimester and continues with the
hepatic phase until the end of gestation.
splenic phase
myeloid phase
the end of the second trimester.

Hemopoiesis begins in the bone marrow
extramedullary hemopoiesis
The liver and spleen are normally not involved in hemopoiesis
after birth, however, in times of need, they can become active in this process
About 0.1% of the cells in the marrow are _____________ that give rise to all the cell types of the blood cell lineage.
Pleuripotential Hemopoietic
Stem Cells (PHSC’s)
The PHSC’s give rise to two lineages. What are they?
CFU-S (CFU-GEMM) (colony forming unit-spleen)
and CFU-L (colony forming unit-lymphocyte).
The CFU-S (CFU-GEMM) gives rise to stem cells that will differentiate into:
erythrocytes
granuloctes
monocytes
megakaryocytes
The CFU-L gives rise to stem cells that will differentiate in
to:
lymphocytes (T- and B- cells)
In studying the development of the blood cells certain maturational
characteristics are observed:

What are they?
a. Cell Size
-stem cells larger than mature cells

b. Cytoplasmic Color
The cytoplasm of the cells in early development tends to have a blue
cytoplasm owing to the large numbers of ribosomes present. The
cytoplasm is less basophilic as development ensues.

c. Chromatin Pattern
The chromatin is finely dispersed in the early stages but becomes “clumped”
in the later stages due to increased heterochromatin.

d. Nucleoli
Nucleoli are present in the earliest stages and are absent as development
proceeds.

e. Nuclear Morphology
The nuclei of developing erythrocytes are large with fine chromatin. As
development proceeds, the chromatin becomes very dense (pycnotic) and
is eventually extruded.
The nuclei of developing granulocytes are somewhat rounded that becomes
lobulated in the later stages of development.
stages of Erythropoiesis
a. Proerythroblast
b. Basophilic erythroblast
c. Polychromatophilic erythroblast
Proerythroblast
The proerythroblast is the first recognizable stage of the erythrocyte lineage.
It is a large cell measuring about 14-17 µm in diameter.
The nucleus is large, spherical, and centrally located. It may occupy up to
80% of the cell. The chromatin is fine.
One to two nucleoli are present.
The cytoplasm is basophilic due to lots of ribosomes.
THE PROERYTHROBLASTS UNDERGO MITOSIS to give rise to more proerythroblasts,
some of which develop into basophilic erythroblasts.
Basophilic erythroblast
The basophilic erythroblast is a smaller cell, measuring about 13-16 µm. The cytoplasm is strongly basophilic due to an increase in the number of
ribosomes which will be used largely for the synthesis of hemoglobin.
Condensation of the chromatin is apparent.
Nucleoli are absent.
BASOPHILIC ERYTHROBLASTS UNDERGO MITOSES to yield more basophilic
erythroblasts, some of which develop into polychromatophilic erythroblasts.
Polychromatophilic erythroblast
The polychromatophilic erythroblast measures about 12-15µm in diameter.
There is an obvious change in the nulear:cytoplasmic ratio.
The chromatin is more condensed than previous stages.
The cytoplasm is greyish in color due to the production of hemoglobin and
a reduction in the number of ribosomes.
POLYCHROMATOPHILIC ERYTHROBLASTS UNDERGO MITOSIS to yield more
polychromatophilic erythroblasts, some of which develop into orthochromatophilic
erythroblasts.
NOTE: This the LAST stage to undergo mitosis.
Orthochromatophilic erythroblast (normoblast)
The orthochromatophilic erythroblast measures about 8-10 µm in diameter.
The cytoplasm is pink, nearing that in color of a mature erythrocyte.
The pycnotic nucleus is centrally located in the early stages, but eventually
assumes an eccentric position and is then extruded.
Once the nucleus is extruded, the cell is called a RETICULOCYTE. Reticulocytes
are usually the first of this lineage to enter the circulation.
Reticulocyte
The reticulocyte is is slightly larger than a mature erythrocyte measuring
about 8-9 µm in diameter.
This stage is usually the first of this lineage that is put into circulation.
There is no central “halo” as there is in a mature erythrocyte since this cell
has not yet assumed a biconcave shape.
The reticulocyte has some cytoplasmic RNA which may be detected using
special RNA stains.
This cell circulates for about 24 hours during which it loses the rest of the
RNA and assumes a biconcave shape. It is then known as an erythrocyte.
Erythrocyte
During the first 24 hours in circulation, the reticulocyte assumes a biconcave shape.
Stages of Granulocytopoiesis
a. Myeloblast
b. Promyelocyte
c. Myelocyte (neutrophilic, eosinophilic, basophilic)
d. Metamyelocyte
e. Band (stab) cells
f. Mature granulocytes
Myeloblast
The myeloblast is the first recognizable stage of the granulocyte lineage.
One is UNABLE to discern which of the three types of granulocytes a particular myeloblast will development into.
It is a large cell measuring about 12-14 µm in diameter.
The nucleus is somewhat spherical and not necessarily centrally located. It does not occupy as much of the cell as found in the proerythroblast. The
chromatin pattern is fine.
One to three nucleoli are present. The cytoplasm is basophilic due to the presence of ribosomes.
MYELOBLASTS UNDERGO MITOSIS and give rise to more myeloblasts, some
of which will differentiate into promyelocytes.
Promyelocyte
Promyelocytes are somewhat larger than myeloblasts, measuring about 16-21 µm.
The hallmark of this stage is the presence of azurophilic granules (lysosomes). The chromatin pattern is fine. One to three nucleoli are present.
The cytoplasm is basophilic due to the presence of ribosomes. Promyelocytes UNDERGO MITOSIS and give rise to more promyelocytes
some of which will differentiate into myelocytes.
Myelocyte (neutrophilic, eosinophilic, basophilic)
The myelocytes measure about 12 µm in diameter.
The hallmark of this stage is the production of specific granules. It is at this
stage that the specific type of granulocyte can be identified.
The cytoplasm appears pale due to the presence of neutrophilic (specific)
granules that tend to mask the azurophilic granules.
The chromatin pattern is coarse.
Nucleoli are absent.
Myelocytes UNDERGO MITOSIS and give rise to more myelocytes some of
which will differentiate into metamyelocytes.
NOTE: This is the LAST stage to UNDERGO MITOSIS.
Metamyelocyte
THIS AND SUBSEQUENT STAGES ARE IDENTIFIED ON THE BASIS OF NUCLEAR MORPHOLOGY. Metamyelocytes measure about 12 µm in diameter.
The nucleus is elongate and has an indentation on one side that is less than 50%.
The chromatin pattern is coarse.
Band (stab) cells
Band cells have elongated nuclei that assume the shape of a horseshoe.
Mature granulocytes
Following the band stage, the nucleus becomes segmented. These cells will
develop 2-4 lobes per cell, each being interconnected by thin strands of
chromatin.
There are two “structural compartments” where neutrophils are located:
What are they?
bone marrow &
blood vessels.
Within the two structural compartments where neutrophils are located there, are four “functional compartments”:
1. Medullary formation
2. Medullary reserve
3. Circulating pool
4. Marginal pool
The ___________ consists of cells that are in some stage of development (mitotic & maturation pools). These include myeloblasts through the band stage.
medullary formation compartment
The __________ contains those cells that are fully- or almost fully developed and are waiting for a “signal” to enter the circulation. These include band and segmented cells. While it is the segmented cells that are normally put into circulation, it is
not uncommon for band cells to enter this pool, especially in cases of infections where
there is increased demand for neutrophils.
Medullary reserve compartment
Neutrophils enter the __________ and circulate for a few days. They then begin
the exit from the vascular system by first adhering to the inner wall of the vessel
(AKA ________). Then, by the process of diapedesis, they enter the connective tissues.
circulating pool
/
marginal pool
Conditions that lead to detachment include What?
strenuous exercise, release of adrenaline, etc.
Within the two structural compartments where neutrophils are located there, are four “functional compartments”:
1. Medullary formation
2. Medullary reserve
3. Circulating pool
4. Marginal pool
The ___________ consists of cells that are in some stage of development (mitotic & maturation pools). These include myeloblasts through the band stage.
medullary formation compartment
The __________ contains those cells that are fully- or almost fully developed and are waiting for a “signal” to enter the circulation. These include band and segmented cells. While it is the segmented cells that are normally put into circulation, it is
not uncommon for band cells to enter this pool, especially in cases of infections where
there is increased demand for neutrophils.
Medullary reserve compartment
Neutrophils enter the __________ and circulate for a few days. They then begin
the exit from the vascular system by first adhering to the inner wall of the vessel
(AKA ________). Then, by the process of diapedesis, they enter the connective tissues.
circulating pool
/
marginal pool
Conditions that lead to detachment include What?
strenuous exercise, release of adrenaline, etc.