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153 Cards in this Set

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In the tropics mosquitoes transmit a round worm, nematode, to humans. The larvae invades the lymphatic vessels and BLOCKS lymphatic drainage=severe edema. What is the name of thee condition that results because of the growth of the nematodes in lymph vessels?
elephantiasis OR filariasis
What are ACE-Inhibitors?
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitors
How do ACE-Inhibitors work?
They inhibit angiotensin 2 from forming thereby reducing the secretion of aldosterone (which increases the salt & water excreted in your urine-lowering blood volume) and they reduce vasoconstriction
How do angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) work?
They allow angiotensin 2 to be made but block it's interaction with it's receptor proteins
What is Valsalva's Maneuver?
expiratory effort against a glottis that pREVENTS air from escaping the lungs thus INCREASINg pressure in thoracic cavity
* What changes occur in the body during Valsavla's manuever? *
lowers heart rate (inhibits SA node), stimulates the VAGUS nerve, puts pressure on THORACIC vEINS (less pressure in heart because of poor venous return)
What is stimulated when there is low arterial pressure, due to low cardiac output, due to poor venous return, due to Valsavla's maneuver?
baroreceptor reflex
the baroreceptor reflex causes what:
a faster cardiac rate and vasoconstriction (increase total peripheral resistance) thereby increasing blood pressure!
When the glottis opens and air is exhaled cardiac output returns to normal, what dOESNT go back to normal?
total peripheral resistance which means higher blood pressure still and which works thru to the baroreceptors to produce a reflex that slows the heart
What is dangerous about Valsavla's maneuver?
the fluctuation of cardiac output and blood pressure
what is thrombus?
a blood clot
Atherosclerosis
most common form of arterioclerosis (hardening of arteries) plaques protrude into lumen of coronary and/or cerebral arteries and rEDUCE blood flow! ALSO. plaques serve as a site for thrombus (blood clots) furthering its reduced blood flow
Why would atherosclerosis be considered an inflammatory disease?
because plaque is believed to originate because of a damaged endothelium of an artery- the plaque continues to grow due to lYMPHOCYTES, MONOCYTES, etc coming to the rescue
What can damage the efforts of the endothelium to fight against the progression of macrophages?
smoking, hypertension, high blood cholesterol
hypercholestermia
high blood cholesterol
Besides the B1 Adrenergic receptor blocker, what other blood pressure medications could also take away hypotension?
diuretics, beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, alpha-stimulators, calcium channel blockers, and ACE inhibitors
Family of regulatory fatty acids
prostaglandins
type of prostaglandin secreted by endothelium that prevents platelets from aggregating
prostacyclin
type of prostaglandin released from platelets
thromboxane A 2
What do Thromboxane A2 do
enable platelets to stick together in a blood clot
enzyme that forms prostaglandins
cyclo-oxygenase (COX)
How does Aspirin prevent platelet aggregation?
it prevents (COX) cyclo-oxygenase which in turn prevents prostaglandin (thromboxane a2) from forming which disallows platelet aggregation
What other class of blood pressure medication is MOST SIMILAR to ARBs in its action & effects on blood pressure?
ACE-inhibitors
Athersclerosis is characterized as what kind of condition?
inflammatory disease and PROGRESSIVE, gets worse and it continues. (can begin when your my age and kill you when your andy's age)
What takes on a "foamy cell " appearance and how does it do this?
Monocytes, when they turn into macrophages in the arteries and consume lipids
What are three things that can damage the protective action of the endothelium?
hypertension, smoking, high blood cholesterol
what does LDL stand for?
low density lipoproteins
what are two contributing factors for the development of hypercholesteremia
eating: saturated fats & cholesterol, genetic predisposition
what contributes to endothelial cell injury
oxidized LDL's
What are three antioxidants that can offer protection against the oxidized LDL's in the artery?
vit C, vit E, beta-carotene
what does HDL stand for
high density lipoproteins
how do HDL reduce the risk for athersclerosis?
take cholesterol from foamy cells of arteries and carry it to liver which converts it to bile salts and excretes it to bile
what factors determine blood levels of HDL?
genetics and gender (women have higher than men usually) exercise also
the name for cholesterol lowering drugs
statins (such as lipitor)
how do statins work?
they inhibit the ability of liver cells to produce new cholesterol thus forcing liver to grab more cholestrol from blood
eating fish once or twice a week lowers chances of athersclerosis, how?
because it contains omega-3 fatty acids (double bond in the carbons so they cant stack on top of each other)
what is defined as a calorie
amount of energy required to raise one cubic centemiter of water 1 degree celcius
heart continues to beat even after you take it out due to what?
intrinsic rhymicity (autonomy)
if you feel a high level of pain which receptors are most active?
nociceptors
blood ph higher than 7.45 is what condition?
alkolosis
blood ph lower than 7.35?
acidosis
if a dietary salt becomes low what paired organs will be stimulated?
kidneys
what group of cells are stimulated if your salt levels are low?
juxtaglomerular apparatus
what important regulatory molecule is eventually made from the stimulation of juxtaglomerular apparatus
angiotensin 2
blood moves up the glass tube all on its own by..
capillary action (hydrogen bonds)
whats a cation that can be used to reduce pain and spasms during a period
magnesium
what contains magnesium?
dark chocolate, almonds, walnuts
drug regiment for elephantitis increases the amount of bone marrow derivative?
leukocyte: eosinophils (fighting parasitic infections)
what condition can lead to the activation of factor 12 and also leads to about 50% of deaths in well developed countries?
athersclerosis
how do enzymes lower the energy of activation?
they properly align the colliding molecules of substrate so they'll interact more easily and chemical reactions are done more efficiently
what built in mechanism of the heart helps the myocardium contain sufficient blood flow to sustain aerobic cell respirtaion
the arteries : intrinsic metabolic vasodilation
in brain: intrinsic myogenic regulation.. STUDY THIS..
scientific term for abnormal narrowing of bicuspid valve (mitral valve)?
mitral valve stenosis
What starts beating during mittelschmertz and what is it derived from?
cilia, derived from microtubules
structure in brain stem located inferiorly to diencephalon, loss of these neurons results in PARKINSONS disease
the midbrain
extra breath you can take in upon breathing in already
expiratory reserve (or is it inspiratory reserve??)
your taking a cyco oxegenase inhibitor, what test could you take in lab?
bleeding time test (because ASPiRIN is a cyco oxegenase inhibitor which effects the bleeding time)
what metabolic pathways are inactive when you feel a burning in your legs?
citric acid cycle (krebs) ETS (cytochrome chain)
stationary leukocytes (phagocytic cells) attached to the liver
kupffer cells
person with diabetes type 2 has a renal threshold of..
above 180 mm per 100 mils
what do oligodendrocytes and schwann cells have in common
both make myelin sheaths
amount of blood in ventricles during diastole (after atrium has squeezed in its last bit as well)
end diastolic volume
contreceptive that can fly out of a women like a frisbee
the "diaphragm"
shows graphic recording of cardiac cycle
cardiogram
holes in bones that material pass thru
caniculi
muscae volitantes are located where?
posterior cavity, vitreous humor
method used to obtain urine
clean catch midstream
why rods get a less clear view than cones
rods do CONVERGANCE, cones dont
where does DeCUSSATION Happen?
medulla oblongata
murmur caused by the thickening and narrowing of left atrioventricular valve
mitral valve stenosis
common cause of heart murmurs that result when mitral valve protrudes into left atrium
mitral valve prolapse
two causes of mitral valve prolapse?
damage to chordae tendineae or congential defects
What other defect, besides those with the valves, can produce heart murmurs?
septal defects
medical name for abnormal patterns of electrical conduction of the heart?
arrythmias
how do quinidine, lidocaine, and procainamide effect myocardial action potential?
they block the Na (sodium) channel
how does verapamil effect myocardial action potential?
blocks the slow Ca (calcium) channel
term for inadequate blood flow to the myocardium
myocardial ischemia
how can myocardial ischemia be detected?
changes in the S-T segment of the EKG
pain caused by myocardial ischemia
angina pectoris
why does pain result from myocardial ischemia?
because its the myocardium not getting enough blood- therefore it kicks into lactic acid fermentation which produces pain
what usually brings about myocardial ischemia?
atherosclerosis
if myocardial ischemia is prolonged what will eventually start happening?
necrosis (cell death) of those cells oxygen-depleted
if myocardial ischemia is prolonged and necrosis ensues, what will be the eventual outcome?
myocardial infarction (heart attack)
Why would you not want to overwork the heart if you have myocardial ischemia?
because prolonged anaerobic metabolism results in necrosis (cell death) - working the heart too hard would result in cells running out of oxygen faster and dying faster
What physiological mechanisms produced a stronger contraction of the L ventricle? (as in a THUMP when you jump in cold water)
cutaneous vessels constricted from the cold, significantly raising the peripheral resistance
After the first THUMP, what physiological mechanisms allows the ventricles to contract more strongly with every beat?
since the end-diastolic volume is greater than it was with the previous beat, it stretches the myocardium so that the thin filaments overlap more advantageously with the thick filaments,thus contraction strength is INCREASED (hence your THUMP)
Why would jumping in cold water not be a good idea if you have mitral prolapse or myocardium ischemia
because it contracts harder which puts more pressure on the already worsening chordae tendineae and it also takes more energy using up more oxygen and killing the cells that are already running low due to myocardium ischemia
How do varicose veins come about?
an accumulation of blood in the leg veins over time that causes them to stretch to the effect that the venous valves are no longer effective
Why are pregnant women more susceptible to varicose veins?
the fetus compresses the abdominal veins, interfering with venous return from the legs = varicose veins
What specific pump is used when you walk around?
skeletal muscle pump
What characterizes orthostatic hypotension and whats another term for it?
When your baroreceptor sensitivity is abnormally reduced thus not doing its job and not compensating for that lack of blood pressure. you can faint cause you just never get that blood to the brain. also called Postural hypotension
What physiological mechanism usually prevents people from getting dizzy when they stand up?
baroreceptor reflex
myocardial cells have what receptors that increase heart rate?
B1- adrenergic receptors
A1 adrenergic receptors are located where and do what?
located in smooth muscle of vessels causing vasoconstriction
B2 adrenergic receptors are found where and do what?
found in smooth muscle cells of pulmonary airways and promote dilation of airways
What would you block to reduce heart rate?
B1 adrenergic receptors
Drugs blocking adrenergic receptors effect the baroreceptor reflex how?
if they are blocked then when the baroreceptors goes to stimulate the adrenergic receptors it cant, thus you could pass out
Why are Calcium channels important in muscle cells?
Allows the tropomyosin to move which allows myosin-actin cross bridge
What part of the heart is usually fibrillating?
the atria, ventriclular fibrillation usually results in death
How much blood would you lose if you didnt have a functioning atria?
about 20%
If the P wave is absent the most likely diagnosis is?
atrial fibrillation
no P wave, atria isn't doing its work, losing 20% of your blood
Structure coming off immediately from the aortic arch
coronary arteries
Active circulatory structure in a flight or fight response?
aterial
Most standard used medication from those suffering from atrial fibrillation?
digitalis
How does digitalis work?
Indirectly acts to raise the Calcium levels, thereby raising strength of contraction so your heart can pump what it needs to
What, besides digitalis, can you use if your suffering from atrial fibrillation?
magnesium
Autoimmune reaction caused by streptococci that causes heart murmurs
rheumatic fever
An action potential spreads from SA node to where?
Atrialventricular node, Bundle of His, Bundle Branches, Purkinje Fibers, Myocardium
Ultimate factor responsible for cardiac output?
venous return
What circulatory structure is responsible for feeding oxygenated blood to the R. Atrium
coronary arteries
What is responsible for forward movement of blood?
elastic recoil and ventricular systole
Name of structure that pumps deoxygenated blood into its respective circuit
pulmonary semilunar valve
Why would you pass out if you jumped out of bed?
Orthostatic hypotension, failure of baroreceptor reflex
whats responsible for the lub noise?
closing of atrioventricular valves
Severe sore throat plus heart murmur =
rheumatic fever
What prevents prolapse of the tricuspid valve?
chordae tendineae
The feeling of pain in your left arm is called
angina pectoris
big fatty balloon traveling thru coronary arteries can lead to.. how can you fix it
infarction
coronary bypass
what is primarily responsible for closure of the semilunar valves
isovolumetric relaxation
baroreceptors in your aortic arch & carotid sinuses relay information to..
cardiac control center & vasomotor center in the medulla oblongata
what is a thrombus?
a blood clot that obstructs a blood vessel
condition of a tendency to form clots
hypercoagulable
a thrombus moved away by blood
embolus
embolus lodged in the lungs
pulmonary embolism
how do emboli cause infarction?
they block blood flow causing the tissue to die (necrosis) which is an infarct by definition
who would be given an anticoagulant?
persons with a history of heart attack, stroke, or pulmonary embolism to reDUCE their clotting tendencies
Anticoagulants are often mistaken as..
blood thinners
anticoagulant that works immediately
heparin
how does heparin work?
inhibits the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
Initially used as rat poison
sodium warfarin (coumadin)
how does sodium warfarin work?
interferes with liver's Vit K dependent synthesis of prothrombin, Factor 7, Factor 9, and Factor 10
Taken orally and takes several days to take effect
sodium warfarin
how does aspirin work?
permanently damages ability of platelets to clump (aggregate)
what is streptokinase?
bacterial enzyme that directly dissolves clots
what does tPA stand for
tissue plasminogen activator
how does tPA work?
converts inactive plasminogen to active plasmin that will dissolve fibrin clots
What triggers DIC
obstetrical complications, infection, cancer, transfusion reaction
how does aspirin cause black stools
it irritates the lining of the stomach and an ulcer forms. then it bleeds, thus the black is from digested blood
taking an aspirin inhibits cyclooxygenase, this is bad because cyclooxygenase does good things like..
build bicarbonate and mucus buffers against the organ's acids (thus without them ulcers can form) & help vessels dilate and cause uteruses to propel babies into the world
how does a stroke usually occur?
blood blockage to the brain
to break down an already made clot what would you take?
tPA
What degrades a clot?
plasma enzyme: plasmin
where is plasminogen made
the liver
what is plasmin derived from?
the inactive precurser in the plasma: plasminogen
what happens when inactive plasminogen is activated?
turns into active plasmin
how does plasmin degrade a clot?
restores fluidity of blood
what converts plasminogen into active plasmin?
tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) and urokinase
what releases tPA?
damaged endothelium of blood vessels
can modify the blood flow in capillary beds
precapillary sphincters
way blood flow can be shifted
arteriovenous shunts
what effect does epinephrine and norepinephrine have on coronary arteries?
ephinephrine- dilate arteries
norepinephrine- constrict arteries
why is norepinephrine sent out with the sympathetic nervous system?
because when you're exercising (for example) your brain/heart conduct their intrinsic metabolic vasodilation, in order for it to do this and supply the heart/brain with the blood it needs, it vASOCONSTRICTS the skin, etc
Why is liver disease a problem in relation to blood?
If you have liver disease you won't be making factor 7, factor 10, Prothrombin, Fibrinogen- Thus you're gonna have a hard time clotting blood
Where are parasympathetic preganglionic neuron's cell bodies?
brain and sacral region of spinal cord